Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

MHC Locus Variation

  • Xiaojiang Gao
  • Arman Bashirova
  • Mary Carrington
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_31-1

Definition

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the short arm of chromosome 6 contains over 120 expressed genes, 40 % of which contribute to immune responses. The classical HLA class I (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) and class II (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP) genes within the MHC are the most diversified loci in the human genome. HLA genes maintain extensive diversity primarily in the gene segments encoding the peptide-binding domains. The number of HLA alleles is in the range of thousands, though only less than one fifth are defined as common and well-documented (CWD) alleles, which more truly reflect the level of HLA polymorphism in populations. It is generally agreed that the extraordinary diversity of HLA is generated and maintained by balancing selection through interactions between the host and infectious pathogens.

The products of HLAgenes are fundamentally important to acquired as well as innate immune responses. The class I loci encode molecules that bind antigenic...

Keywords

Multiple Cohort Study Viral Load Control Rare Allele Advantage Strong Natural Killer Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaojiang Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arman Bashirova
    • 2
  • Mary Carrington
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental ImmunologySAIC-Frederick, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer ResearchFrederickUSA
  2. 2.Ragon Institute of MGHMIT and HarvardBostonUSA