Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Lung Cancer

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_23-1


The term lung cancer is usually used to describe any of several types of primary tumors arising in the lung; common histological types include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, bronchoalveolar cancer, and small-cell lung cancer. Taken together, lung cancer is the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancy in HIV-infected individuals. Lung cancer risk appears to be two to five times greater in the HIV-infected persons compared to the general population, and most epidemiological studies find that the risk remains high even after adjusting for other factors like smoking intensity and duration. Often these patients present with advanced disease at a younger age but may have comparable survival compared with similarly matched lung cancer patients without HIV infection. Smoking cessation is the most effective preventive strategy.


The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (Antiretroviral Medications, Care and Treatment),...


Lung Cancer Smoking Cessation Nicotine Replacement Therapy Lung Cancer Risk Lung Cancer Mortality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Ly S, Kahn A, Schymura MJ, Sackoff J, et al. Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:293–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brock MV, Hooker CM, Engels EA, et al. Delayed diagnosis and elevated mortality in an urban population with HIV and lung cancer: implications for patient care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43:47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cadranel J, Garfield D, Lavole A, Wislez M, Milleron B, Mayaud C. Lung cancer in HIV infected patients: facts, questions and challenges. Thorax. 2006;61:1000–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Jaen GA, Pantanowitz L, Bower M, Buskin S, Neil N, Greco EM, Cooley TP, Henry D, Stem J, Dezube BJ, Stebbing J, Aboulafia DM. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated primary lung cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a multi-institutional collaboration. Clin Lung Cancer. 2010;11:396–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hooker CM, Meguid RA, Hulbert A, Taylor JT, Shin J, Wrangle J, Rodgers K, Lee B, Laskshmanan S, Brown T, Meneshian A, Sussman M, Keruly J, Moore RD, Yang SC, Brock MV. Human immunodeficiency virus infection as a prognostic factor in surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:405–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kirk GD, Merlo CA, Lung HIV Study. HIV infection in the etiology of lung cancer: confounding, causality, and consequences. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011;8:326–32.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lavole A, Chouaid C, Baudrin L, et al. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival of HIV infected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:345–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lifson AR, Lando HA. Smoking and HIV: prevalence, health risks, and cessation strategies. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2012;9(3):223–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Makinson A, Tenon JC, Eymard-Duvernay S, Pujol JL, Allavena C, Cuzin L, Poizot-Martin I, de la Tribonnière X, Cabié A, Pugliese P, Reynes J, Le Moing V. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and non-small cell lung cancer: survival and toxicity of antineoplastic chemotherapy in a cohort study. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:1022–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mani D, Haigentz Jr M, Aboulafia DM. Lung cancer in HIV Infection. Clin Lung Cancer. 2012;13:6–13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nahvi S, Cooperman NA. Review: the need for smoking cessation among HIV-positive smokers. AIDS Educ Prev. 2009;21:14–27.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD, Black WC, Clapp JD, Fagerstrom RM, Gareen IF, Gatsonis C, Marcus PM, Sicks JD. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:395–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pakkala S, Ramalingam SS. Lung cancer in HIV-positive patients. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1864–71.Google Scholar
  15. Persad GC, Little RF, Grady C. Including persons with HIV infection in cancer clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:1027–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rahmanian S, Wewers ME, Koletar S, Reynolds N, Ferketich A, Diaz P. Cigarette smoking in the HIV-infected population. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011;8:313–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rengan R, Mitra N, Liao K, Armstrong K, Vachani A. Effect of HIV on survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a population-based study.Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:1203–9Google Scholar
  18. Rudek MA, Flexner C, Ambinder RF. Use of antineoplastic agents in patients with cancer who have HIV/AIDS. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:905–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shiels MS, Cole SR, Kirk GD, Poole C. A meta-analysis of the incidence of non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:611–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shiels MS, Pfeiffer RM, Engels EA. Age at cancer diagnosis among persons with AIDS in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153:452–60.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sigel K, Wisnivesky J, Gordon K, Dubrow R, Justice A, Brown ST, Goulet J, Butt AA, Crystal S, Rimland D, Rodriguez-Barradas M, Gibert C, Park LS, Crothers K. HIV as an independent risk factor for incident lung cancer. AIDS. 2012;26:1017–25.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zucchetto A, Suligoi B, De PA, Pennazza S, Polesel J, Bruzzone S, et al. Excess mortality for non-AIDS-defining cancers among people with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:1099–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Internal MedicineMulticare Good Samaritan HospitalPuyallupUSA
  2. 2.Division of Hematology and OncologyVirginia Mason Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Division of HematologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA