T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) is a member of the T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin, and mucin (TIM) gene family of phosphatidylserine-binding proteins (Freeman et al. 2010). It is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein consisting of an N-terminal IgV-like domain and a heavily glycosylated mucin domain, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. Tim-3 plays a role in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses during autoimmunity, cancer, and chronic infections (Han et al. 2013; Zhu et al. 2011). While it has been shown to both negatively and positively regulate innate immune responses, Tim-3 plays a distinct negative regulatory role in regards to T cell responses. During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection, Tim-3 marks dysfunctional T cells during chronic stages of infection and acts to dampen responses to viral antigen, contributing to the “exhausted” state of the immune system and lack of viral...
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Natural Killer Cell Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Adaptive Immune Cell Cell Exhaustion
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