Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

T-Cell Homeostasis

  • Julia Drylewicz
  • Kiki Tesselaar
  • José A. M. Borghans
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_207-1


During healthy aging, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell numbers remain relatively stable, despite a significant decline in thymus output. This T-cell homeostasis is dramatically disturbed during HIV infection, during which naive and memory CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-cell numbers gradually decline, eventually leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In contrast, memory CD8+ T-cell numbers are significantly increased in HIV infection. Although the causes of disturbed lymphocyte homeostasis in HIV infection have been subject of much debate, there is a current consensus that the deleterious effects of chronic immune activation play a central role.

During effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), CD4+ T-cell numbers tend to come back to healthy control levels, albeit very slowly, while memory CD8+T-cell numbers tend to remain elevated for long periods of time. It remains unclear whether active homeostatic mechanisms kick in to reestablish lymphocyte homeostasis...


Rhesus Macaque Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Chronic Immune Activation Thymic Output 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Drylewicz
    • 1
  • Kiki Tesselaar
    • 1
  • José A. M. Borghans
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Department of ImmunologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands