Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

T-Cell Homeostasis

  • Julia Drylewicz
  • Kiki Tesselaar
  • José A. M. Borghans
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_207-1

Definition

During healthy aging, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell numbers remain relatively stable, despite a significant decline in thymus output. This T-cell homeostasis is dramatically disturbed during HIV infection, during which naive and memory CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-cell numbers gradually decline, eventually leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In contrast, memory CD8+ T-cell numbers are significantly increased in HIV infection. Although the causes of disturbed lymphocyte homeostasis in HIV infection have been subject of much debate, there is a current consensus that the deleterious effects of chronic immune activation play a central role.

During effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), CD4+ T-cell numbers tend to come back to healthy control levels, albeit very slowly, while memory CD8+T-cell numbers tend to remain elevated for long periods of time. It remains unclear whether active homeostatic mechanisms kick in to reestablish lymphocyte homeostasis...

Keywords

Hunt Deuterium 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Drylewicz
    • 1
  • Kiki Tesselaar
    • 1
  • José A. M. Borghans
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Department of ImmunologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands