Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

SIV Infection of African Green Monkeys

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_203-1
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Definition

Human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) are both Lentiviridae, a subgroup of the Retroviridae, which are characterized by the presence of regulatory genes in addition to the gag, pol, and env genes. At least 12 independent cases of SIV transmission from chimpanzees, gorillas, or sooty mangabeys (SMs) to humans have been documented. HIV-1M, the epidemic strain of HIV, was likely introduced into the human population via an SIV-infected chimpanzee around the beginning of the twentieth century. Sooty mangabey SIV (SIVsmm) gave rise to both HIV-2, which is largely restricted to West Africa, and SIVmac (Munch and Kirchhoff 2012). In contrast to natural hosts, Asian macaques are not infected with SIVmac in the wild.

Over 40 African nonhuman primate species are infected with species-specific SIVs. Infection has been extensively studied in only four of these species: African green monkeys (AGMs), sooty mangabeys, mandrills, and chimpanzees. The first three have a...

Keywords

Viral Load Long Terminal Repeat Germinal Center Natural Host Proviral Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Agence Nationale de Recherche de SIDA et Hepatitis (ANRS), Fondation AREVA, Fondation Total, and Université Paris 7 for provided funding.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité de Régulation des Infections RétroviralesInstitut PasteurParisFrance