Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a multifaceted activation of the immune system, which predicts disease progression better than plasma viremia or the number of CD4 T cells in blood. One of the causes of this multifaceted immune activation is microbial translocation, which is associated with the progressive breakdown of the physical and immunological gastrointestinal (GI) barriers. One of the many detriments associated with persistent immune activation is the production of activated CD4 T cells, which serve as preferential targets for the virus in vivo. Ultimately, sufficient numbers of CD4 T cells are depleted, and HIV-infected individuals become susceptible to opportunistic infections, and the disease culminates in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ongoing research in both HIV-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate models continues to reveal that a failure to regulate GI tract immunity and...
KeywordsPlacebo Osteoporosis Interferon Luminal Pseudomonas
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