HIV Infection, Immune-Based Interventions for
The overwhelming and continuous success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is undermined by the inability to completely eradicate the HIV virus, requiring lifelong treatment, which is associated not only with side effects for the patients but also with substantial costs for the society. Immune-based interventions (IBTs) were developed during the last 15 years along two distinct paradigms. The first paradigm proposed during the late 1990s and early 2000s suggested either (1) using IBTs to help restore CD4 counts, in cases of failed immune reconstitution, or (2) using therapeutic vaccines to allow for prolonged treatment interruptions (TIs) and prevent disease progression by better controlling virus replication in the absence of treatment (Autran et al. 2004; Carcelain and Autran 2013; Pantaleo and Levy 2013). However, the SMART study, which demonstrated deleterious consequences of treatment interruptions, halted these TI-based strategies. The greater efficacy of new...
KeywordsPlacebo Toxicity Vaccinia Lymphopenia Polynucleotide
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