Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Behavioral Aspects of HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission

  • Robert Malow
  • Consuelo M. Beck-Sagué
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_104-1

Definition

HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is defined as infection acquired by an infant from an HIV-positive mother during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breastfeeding.

Introduction

Worldwide, an estimated 3.4 million children under the age of 15 years were living with HIV in 2011, of whom 330,000 acquired HIV that year; over 95 % are believed to have acquired HIV by MTCT (UNAIDS 2012) (374, 359). Without intervention, 28–40 % of infants born to HIV-positive mothers will acquire HIV, most during delivery; less frequently, intrauterine MTCT can occur. MTCT can also occur during breastfeeding, and over 10 % of MTCT cases in breastfeeding populations may be due to this mode of transmission (Horvath et al. 2009). Prenatal interventions for prevention of MTCT (pMTCT) can decrease risk considerably. Multi-dose zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine regimens during pregnancy have been shown to decrease the risk of HIV transmission to rates of 8–15 % (384,414,381). Elective cesarean...

Keywords

Prenatal Care Serodiscordant Couple Maternity Staff Nevirapine Regimen MTCT Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Malow
    • 1
  • Consuelo M. Beck-Sagué
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health Promotion and Disease PreventionRobert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA