Behavioral Aspects of HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission
HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is defined as infection acquired by an infant from an HIV-positive mother during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breastfeeding.
Worldwide, an estimated 3.4 million children under the age of 15 years were living with HIV in 2011, of whom 330,000 acquired HIV that year; over 95 % are believed to have acquired HIV by MTCT (UNAIDS 2012) (374, 359). Without intervention, 28–40 % of infants born to HIV-positive mothers will acquire HIV, most during delivery; less frequently, intrauterine MTCT can occur. MTCT can also occur during breastfeeding, and over 10 % of MTCT cases in breastfeeding populations may be due to this mode of transmission (Horvath et al. 2009). Prenatal interventions for prevention of MTCT (pMTCT) can decrease risk considerably. Multi-dose zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine regimens during pregnancy have been shown to decrease the risk of HIV transmission to rates of 8–15 % (384,414,381). Elective cesarean...
KeywordsPrenatal Care Serodiscordant Couple Maternity Staff Nevirapine Regimen MTCT Risk
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