Tool Marks

  • Henrik Hargitai
Living reference work entry


“Flow-parallel structures” that “express the action of objects that either approach sufficiently close to or actually cut into a bed” (Allen 1982:510).


  1. (1)
    Marks of protracted contact (Allen 1982).
    1. (1.1)

      Drag marks, e.g., grooved shaped ice keel scour marks or iceberg drag marks (Allen 1982), which are the tracks made by bottom touching floating ice masses as their keels mechanically plough into soft sediments of lake, river, or ocean floors. Some grooves in Kasei Valles, Mars, are interpreted as ice keel scour marks. Ice keel scour marks may occur together with ice floe grounding pits (Woodworth-Lynas and Guigné 2003; Fig. 1).

    2. (1.2)

      Roll marks (Dżułyński and Walton 1965).

  2. (2)

    Marks of brief contact can be single or repeated and include prod marks, skim marks, etc. (Allen 1982).



Geographical Information Ocean Floor Soft Sediment Floe Grounding Tool Mark 
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  1. Allen JRL (1982) Sedimentary structures: their character and physical basis II. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  2. Dżułyński S, Walton EK (1965) Sedimentary features of Flysch and Greywackes. Dev Sedimentol 7:1–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dzulynsky S, Saunders JE (1962) Bottom marks on firm bottom mud. Trans Conn Acad Arts Sci 42:57–96, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  4. Woodworth-Lynas C, Guigné JY (2003) Ice Keel Scour marks on Mars: evidence for floating and grounding Ice Floes in Kasei Valles. Oceanography 16(4):90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Planetary Science Research GroupEötvös Loránd University, Institute of Geography and Earth SciencesBudapestHungary