Volcaniclastic Deposits

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_562-1


Clastic materials composed in part or entirely of volcanic fragments, deposited in any physiographic environment (Fisher 1966).


Subtypes and Formation

Primary volcaniclastic deposits and rocks form by volcanic processes and are transported and deposited directly by explosive or effusive volcanic processes (White and Houghton 2006). Subtypes by origin of particles (Schneider and Fisher 1995):
  1. (1)

    Pyroclastic deposit: fragmental volcanic products produced by explosive volcanic activity (Sparks and Walker 1973) involving rapidly expanding magma that loses cohesion and breaks into fragments (Schneider and Fisher 1995).

  2. (2)

    Cryoclastic deposits (cryoclast) are deposits of explosively vented ice particles (fragments) that may also contain non-ice components (cryovolcano; geyser: Enceladus) (Kargel 1990).

  3. (3)
    Autoclastic deposits from nonexplosive fragmentation in effusive eruptions (McPhie et al. 1993). Autoclastic fragments result from...


Pyroclastic Deposit Clastic Material Sulfur Particle Basaltic Glass Volcanic Process 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologySouthern Illinois University CarbondaleCarbondaleUSA