Pressure Ridge

  • Henrik Hargitai
  • Jarmo Korteniemi
  • Serina Diniega
Living reference work entry


The term pressure ridge is applied to meter-scale ridges made up from platy material, which was fragmented from relatively thin crust and piled up by pressure. Kilometer-scale wrinkle ridges form by similar mechanism. Pressure ridges may be composed of:
  1. (1)

    Lava: An elongate uplift of the congealing thin crust of a lava flow, up-buckled by laterally directed pressure and uncoupled from underlying structure and topography (Bryan 1973; Walker 1991; Neuendorf et al. 2005; Fig. 1) or

  2. (2)

    Ice: Pack ice crushed under pressures (e.g., by winds) into linear or sinuous conglomeration of ice fragments (Fig. 2). The submerged volume under a ridge is termed ice keel (WMO 1989); the rubble above the water line is called the sail (Timco et al. 2000).



Lava Flow Thin Crust Pressure Ridge Wrinkle Ridge Rubble Pile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ackley SF, WagnerP, Xie H (2007) Sea ice ridging and rafting structures: is the microstructural controlled transition from Ductile to Brittle behavior on earth also seen on Mars? Lunar Planet Sci Conf XXXVIII, abstract #2035, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  2. Bryan WB (1973) Wrinkle-ridges as deformed surface crust on ponded mare lava. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 37(Suppl 4):93–106Google Scholar
  3. Gifford AW, Maxwell TA (1980) Ridge systems of Caloris: comparison with lunar basins. Lunar Planet Sci Conf XII:327–329, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  4. Head JW III (1976) Lunar volcanism in space and time. Rev Geophys Space Sci 14(2):265–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jaeger WL, Keszthelyi LP, Skinner JA Jr, Milazzo MP, McEwen AS et al (2010) Emplacement of the youngest flood lava on Mars: a short, turbulent story. Icarus 205:230–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Keszthelyi L, McEwen AS, Thordarson T (2000) Terrestrial analogs and thermal models for Martian flood lavas. J Geophys Res 105(E6):15027–15049. doi:10.1029/1999JE001191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keszthelyi L, Thordarson T, McEwen A, Haack H, Guilbaud M-N, Self S, Rossi MJ (2004) Icelandic analogs to Martian flood lavas. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 5, Q11014. doi:10.1029/2004GC000758Google Scholar
  8. Larson CV (1992) Nomenclature of lava tube features. In: Rea GT (ed) In: 6th international symposium of vulcanospeleology, Hilo, Hawaii, Aug 1991. National Speleological SocietyGoogle Scholar
  9. Morris EC (1982) Aureole deposits of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons. J Geophys Res 87(B2):1164–1178. doi:10.1029/JB087iB02p01164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Murray JB, Muller J-P, Neukum G, Werner SC, van Gasselt S et al (2005) Evidence from the Mars express high resolution stereo camera for a frozen sea close to Mars’ equator. Nature 434:352–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Neuendorf KKE, Mehl JP, Jackson JA (2005) Glossary of geology. Springer Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  12. Nichols RL (1939) Pressure-ridges and collapse depressions on the McCartys basalt flow, New Mexico. Tran Am Geophys Union 20(3):432–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Strom RG, Trask NJ, Guest JE (1975) Tectonism and volcanism on Mercury. JGR Solid Earth Planets 80(17):2478–2507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Takahashi TJ, Griggs JD (1987) Hawaiian volcanic features: a photoglossary. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. USGS professional papers 1350. Washington, vol. 2, pp 845–902Google Scholar
  15. Theilig E, Greeley R (1986) Lava flows on Mars: analysis of small surface features and comparisons with terrestrial analogs. 17th Lunar Planet Sci Conf 1, J Geophys Res 91 B13 E193–E206Google Scholar
  16. Timco GW, Coarsdale K, Wright B (2000) An overview of first-year sea ice ridges. Canadian hydraulics centre technical report HYD-TR-047, PERD/CHC report 5-112Google Scholar
  17. Walker GPL (1991) Structure, and origin by injection of lava under surface crust, of tumuli, “lava rises”, “lava-rise pits”, and “lava-inflation clefts” in Hawaii. Bull Volcanol 53(7):546–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Watters TR (1988) Wrinkle ridge assemblages on the terrestrial planets. J Geophys Res 93(B9):10236–10254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. WMO (1989) WMO sea ice nomenclature. WMO/OMM/BMO-No. 259. Tp. 145. Supplement no 5. Part I. Ice terms arranged by subject. GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrik Hargitai
    • 1
  • Jarmo Korteniemi
    • 2
  • Serina Diniega
    • 3
  1. 1.Planetary Science Research GroupInstitute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Physical SciencesUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  3. 3.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA