Pit-Floor Crater

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_268-1

Definition

Pit-floor craters are impact craters hosting pit craters that formed by magma withdrawal and collapse. The pits within pit-floor craters are rimless steep-sided depressions that are inferred to have formed by non-impact processes.

Related Terms

Endogenically modified impact crater; Pit within crater may be called caldera, collapse pit, collapse crater, subsidence crater, or collapse depression

Description

Mercury: Host craters vary in size from 13 to 200 km in diameter, while the associated pit craters range from 10 to almost 80 km. The maximum diameter of a collapse feature must be larger than 10 km to be classified as a pit – on the basis of observation and the definition of planetary caldera from Mouginis-Mark and Rowland (2001). Below 10 km pits may form by many different mechanisms (e.g., pyroclastic eruption, venting of magmatic volatiles, hollows formation, collapse crust of a lava flow, collapse of a lava tube, and collapse of loose surface material into a...

Keywords

Depression Mercury Boulder 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Barlow NG, Bradley TL (1990) Martian impact craters: correlations of ejecta and interior morphologies with diameter, latitude, and terrain. Icarus 87:156–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blewett DT, Chabot NL, Denevi BW, Ernst CM et al (2011) Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER evidence for geologically recent volatile-related activity. Science 333(6051):1856–1859. doi:10.1126/science.1211681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gillis-Davis JJ, Blewett DT, Gaskell RW, Denevi BW, Robinson MS, Strom RG, Solomon SC, Sprague AL (2009) Pit-floor craters on Mercury: evidence of near-surface igneous activity. Earth Planet Sci Lett 285(3–4):243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gillis-Davis JJ, Markley MM, Goudge TA, Head JW, Zhiyong Xiao, Gwinner K (2012) Large pit craters on mercury: global distribution and occurrence. LPSC 43, abstract #2288Google Scholar
  5. Gillis-Davis JJ, Goudge TA, Head JW, Xiao Z, Byrne PK (2013) The spatial and topographic distribution of pit craters on Mercury. 44th Lunar Planet Sci Conf, abstract #2422, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  6. Gillis-Davis JJ et al (2014) Global distribution of calderas on Mercury, in prepGoogle Scholar
  7. Mouginis-Mark PJ, Rowland SK (2001) The geomorphology of planetary calderas. Geomorphology 37:201–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and PlanetologyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA