Pit-Floor Crater

  • Jeffrey Gillis-Davis
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_268-1

Definition

Pit-floor craters are impact craters hosting pit craters that formed by magma withdrawal and collapse. The pits within pit-floor craters are rimless steep-sided depressions that are inferred to have formed by non-impact processes.

Related Terms

Endogenically modified impact crater; Pit within crater may be called caldera, collapse pit, collapse crater, subsidence crater, or collapse depression

Description

Mercury: Host craters vary in size from 13 to 200 km in diameter, while the associated pit craters range from 10 to almost 80 km. The maximum diameter of a collapse feature must be larger than 10 km to be classified as a pit – on the basis of observation and the definition of planetary caldera from Mouginis-Mark and Rowland (2001). Below 10 km pits may form by many different mechanisms (e.g., pyroclastic eruption, venting of magmatic volatiles, hollows formation, collapse crust of a lava flow, collapse of a lava tube, and collapse of loose surface material into a...

Keywords

Magma Chamber Gravitational Collapse Impact Crater Fault Scarp Lava Tube 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Barlow NG, Bradley TL (1990) Martian impact craters: correlations of ejecta and interior morphologies with diameter, latitude, and terrain. Icarus 87:156–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. Gillis-Davis JJ, Goudge TA, Head JW, Xiao Z, Byrne PK (2013) The spatial and topographic distribution of pit craters on Mercury. 44th Lunar Planet Sci Conf, abstract #2422, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  6. Gillis-Davis JJ et al (2014) Global distribution of calderas on Mercury, in prepGoogle Scholar
  7. Mouginis-Mark PJ, Rowland SK (2001) The geomorphology of planetary calderas. Geomorphology 37:201–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and PlanetologyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA