Hornito

  • Károly Németh
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_190-1

Definition

A small (few meters wide and tall) rootless lava spatter cone that forms dominantly on the surface of a basaltic pahoehoe lava flow.

Synonyms

Description

Usually small mounds of spatter built over (Kauahikaua et al. 1998; Skinner 1993) rootless vents.

Subtypes

The shatter ring is a circular lava surface feature composed of angular and fluidally shaped lava and solidified lava fragments. Shatter rings are the result of the pressure fluctuation of the lava in the active lava tube resulting in a mechanical stress on the lava tube roof lifting and dropping a few meters wide cracked zones of the gradually solidifying crust (Kauahikaua et al. 1998; Kauahikaua et al. 2003; Lockwood and Hazlett 2010). The shatter cone edifice is composed of fragmented chilled lava tube roof rocks that formed relatively passively (e.g., they were cooled and solidified prior to their fragmentation), while hornitos are the result of an active process lead weak...

Keywords

Lava Flow Arabian Peninsula Lava Tube Lava Field Magmatic Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Gao WY, Li JH, Mao X, Zhang TR (2010) Discussion on genetic mechanism of hornitos in Wudalianchi volcanic field. Acta Petrol Sinica 26(1):309–317Google Scholar
  2. Kauahikaua J, Cashman KV, Mattox TN, Heliker CC, Hon KA, Mangan MT, Thornber CR (1998) Observations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kilauea Volcano, island of Hawai’i. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 103(B11):27303–27323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kauahikaua JP, Sherrod DR, Cashman KV, Heliker C, Hon K, Mattox T, Johnson J (2003) Hawaiian lava-flow dynamics during the Pu’u O’o-Kupaianaha eruption: a tale of two decades. In: Heliker C, Swanson DA, Takahashi TJ (eds) The Pu’u O’o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawai’i: the first 20 years. US Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, USA, pp 63–88Google Scholar
  4. Lockwood J, Hazlett R (2010) Volcanoes – global perspectives. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 539 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Skinner C (1993) Open vertical volcanic conduits: a preliminary investigation of an unusual volcanic cave form with examples from Newberry Volcano and the Central High Cascades of Oregon. In: Proceedings of the third international symposium on vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle, pp 7–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Volcanic Risk SolutionsMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand