A small (few meters wide and tall) rootless lava spatter cone that forms dominantly on the surface of a basaltic pahoehoe lava flow.
The shatter ring is a circular lava surface feature composed of angular and fluidally shaped lava and solidified lava fragments. Shatter rings are the result of the pressure fluctuation of the lava in the active lava tube resulting in a mechanical stress on the lava tube roof lifting and dropping a few meters wide cracked zones of the gradually solidifying crust (Kauahikaua et al. 1998; Kauahikaua et al. 2003; Lockwood and Hazlett 2010). The shatter cone edifice is composed of fragmented chilled lava tube roof rocks that formed relatively passively (e.g., they were cooled and solidified prior to their fragmentation), while hornitos are the result of an active process lead weak...
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