As the primary pollinators in the world, bees have global significance. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives can be found in either the hives of beekeepers or in the case of feral (wild) honeybees in tree hollows, fallen logs, or buildings. Much has been made over the last few decades of Africanized honeybees which consist of hybrids from interbreeding of domestic honeybees and African honeybees from South America. Africanized honeybees are more aggressive species than domestic honeybees and may attack in swarms (Alaux et al. 2009). Though not pathognomonic for honeybees, upon stinging the honeybee typically leaves its barbed stinger and attached venom sac at the sting site. A sting was originally thought to deliver approximately 50 mcg of honeybee venom though subsequent evaluation has shown this to be variable.
The honeybee (Apis mellifera) includes the European honeybee (subspecies A. mellifera ligustica) and the African honeybee...