# Healing, Super Healing, and Other Issues in Continuum Damage Mechanics

• Peter I. Kattan
• Navid Mozaffari
Living reference work entry

## Abstract

In this chapter, after a quick introduction on the literature of healing and super healing concept, the damage/healing mechanics principles are investigated. The concept of super healing of materials is then introduced into the framework of continuum damage mechanics (CDM). Super-healed material can be seen as a strengthened material by further healing when the whole damage is recovered by healing of a damaged material. Therefore, in this chapter the process of healing beyond what is necessary for damage recovery is called super healing. Super material is the final objective of the super healing process when the material achieves more stiffness at the end of super healing process. Then, by introducing the anisotropic super healing concept, these concepts are generalized in tensorial form to be used in anisotropic damage and healing of materials. Consequently, three fundamental issues in CDM are discussed. Nature of the damage process is investigated by dissecting the expression of the effective stress into an infinite geometric series. Several stages of damage are introduced which are termed primary, secondary, tertiary, etc., using this expression. New definition of the damage variable is then introduced for small damage cases. The new concept of undamageable materials that maintain a zero value of the damage variable throughout the deformation process is introduced. Finally and in the last section of the chapter, the forming of a singularity which leads to initiation of the process of fracture is shown in a continuous region within the framework of CDM. The internal damage processes leading to a singularity are illustrated mathematically. This section potentially provides a crucial link between the damage and fracture mechanics.

### Keywords

Fatigue Rubber Clarification

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