Brain Trauma and Nutritional Support

  • Wolfgang A. Wetsch
  • Bernd W. Böttiger
  • Stephan A. Padosch
Living reference work entry


Severe traumatic brain injury is among the most common causes of death in young adults in the industrialized nations. Secondary injury due to an activation of pathophysiological signaling pathways significantly enlarges primary injury directly caused by trauma and is responsible for one third of all fatalities due to traumatic brain injury. Critical care medicine in patients with traumatic brain injury aims to minimze secondary injury and further loss of potentially healthy brain tissue, to prevent activation of proinflammatory cascades, and to minimize the consequences of these cascades. Therapeutic strategies include continuous monitoring and avoidance of raised intracranial pressure, arterial hypotension, hypoxemia, and thromboembolic complications. Nutrition and its effects on the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury have been underestimated for a long time. There is evidence that nutrition should be started within the first 24 h after traumatic brain injury. If no contraindications exist, the enteral route should be the preferred way for administering nutrition. When nutrition is started already with full calculated calories on the first day after trauma, infections and overall complications can be reduced significantly.


Traumatic Brain Injury Enteral Nutrition Diabetes Insipidus Secondary Injury Critical Illness Polyneuropathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Antidiuretic hormone


Central nervous system


Central pontine myelinolysis


Cerebral perfusion pressure


Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome


Central venous pressure




European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism


Glasgow Coma Scale


Hydroxyethyl starch


Intracranial pressure


Intensive care unit


Long-chain triglycerides


Medium-chain triglycerides


Reactive oxygen species


Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion


Standard operating procedure


Traumatic brain injury


Ventilator-associated pneumonia


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang A. Wetsch
    • 1
  • Bernd W. Böttiger
    • 1
  • Stephan A. Padosch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany

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