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Nutritional Screening and Assessment Tools for Cardiac Surgery and ICU

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Malnutrition is one of the consequences of congestive heart failure and cardiac cachexia. It is a well-known unfavorable prognostic factor associated with increased mortality and a complicated postoperative course in cardiac surgery. The details of the development of cardiac cachexia determine the specific approach for nutritional care of such patients, including nutritional screening and assessment. There is no universally accepted approach to nutritional screening in cardiac surgery. However, existing evidence indicates that the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool is the most appropriate. The components of the nutritional assessment of cardiac patients do differ significantly from those for other patient cohorts. Any dietary assessment method as well as anthropometric and laboratory data can be used for the nutritional assessment of cardiac patients. However, interpreting any single objective parameter is often challenging and must be supplemented with other criteria. Therefore, the nutritional assessment of cardiac patients has multiple components and should be performed in combination with the analysis of systemic inflammation.

Keywords

Nutritional screening Nutritional assessment Cardiac surgery Heart failure Malnutrition 

List of Abbreviations

ASPEN

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

BMI

Body mass index

CHF

Chronic heart failure

CHF

Congestive heart failure

CPB

Cardiopulmonary bypass

CSSM

Cardiac Surgery-Specific Malnutrition Screening Tool

CSSUST

Cardiac Surgery-Specific Undernutrition Screening Tool

ICU

Intensive care unit

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

MUST

Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool

NRS-2002

Nutritional Risk Index 2002

SGA

Subjective Global Assessment

SNAQ

Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire

TLC

Total lymphocyte count

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive careResearch Institute of Circulation PathologyNovosibirskRussian Federation

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