Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Abstract Versus Concrete Temporal Query Languages

  • Jan ChomickiEmail author
  • David Toman
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1559


Historical query languages


Temporal query languages are a family of query languages designed to query (and access in general) time-dependent information stored in temporal databases. The languages are commonly defined as extensions of standard query languages for non-temporal databases with temporal features. The additional features reflect the way dependencies of data on time are captured by and represented in the underlying temporal data model.

Historical Background

Most databases store time-varying information. On the other hand, SQL is often the language of choice for developing applications that utilize the information in these databases. Plain SQL, however, does not seem to provide adequate support for temporal applications.


To represent the employment histories of persons, a common relational design would use a schema
$$ \begin{array}{ll}...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Bettini C, Wang XS, Jajodia S. Temporal semantic assumptions and their use in databases. Knowl Data Eng. 1998;10(2):277–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chomicki J. Temporal query languages: a survey. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Temporal Logic; 1994. p. 506–34.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chomicki J, Toman D. Temporal databases. In: Fischer M, Gabbay D, Villa L, editors. Handbook of temporal reasoning in artificial intelligence. Elsevier Foundations of Artificial Intelligence; 2005. p. 429–67.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chomicki J, Toman D, Böhlen MH. Querying ATSQL databases with temporal logic. ACM Trans Database Syst. 2001;26(2):145–78.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Law Y-N, Wang H, Zaniolo C. Query languages and data models for database sequences and data streams. In: Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases; 2004. p. 492–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Navathe SB, Ahmed R. Temporal extensions to the relational model and SQL. In: Tansel A, Clifford J, Gadia S, Jajodia S, Segev A, Snodgrass RT, editors. Temporal databases: theory, design, and implementation. Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings; 1993. p. 92–109.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Snodgrass RT. The temporal query language TQuel. ACM Trans Database Syst. 1987;12(2):247–98.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Toman D. Point vs. interval-based query languages for temporal databases. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems; 1996. p. 58–67.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Toman D. Point-based temporal extensions of SQL. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases; 1997. p. 103–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.University of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Richard T. Snodgrass
    • 1
  • Christian S. Jensen
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Aalborg UniversityAalborg ØstDenmark