Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

SQL-Based Temporal Query Languages

  • Michael H. BöhlenEmail author
  • Johann Gamper
  • Christian S. Jensen
  • Richard T. Snodgrass
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1525


More than two dozen extensions to the relational data model have been proposed that support the storage and retrieval of time-referenced data. These models timestamp tuples or attribute values, and the timestamps used include time points, time periods, and finite unions of time periods, termed temporal elements.

A temporal query language is defined in the context of a specific data model. Most notably, it supports the specification of queries on the specific form of time-referenced data provided by its data model. More generally, it enables the management of time-referenced data.

Different approaches to the design of a temporal extension to the Structured Query Language (SQL) have emerged that yield temporal query languages with quite different design properties.

Historical Background

A number of past events and activities that included the temporal database community at large had a significant impact on the evolution of temporal query languages. The 1987 IFIP TC 8/WG 8.1...

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Recommended Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael H. Böhlen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Johann Gamper
    • 3
  • Christian S. Jensen
    • 4
  • Richard T. Snodgrass
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Free University of Bozen-BolzanoBozen-BolzanoItaly
  2. 2.University of ZurichZürichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Free University of Bozen-BolzanoBolzanoItaly
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  5. 5.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  6. 6.Dataware VenturesTucsonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Richard T. Snodgrass
    • 1
  • Christian S. Jensen
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Aalborg UniversityAalborg ØstDenmark