Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Audio Metadata

  • Werner KriechbaumEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1523


Music metadata


Audio, first used in 1934 refers to “Sound, esp. recorded or transmitted sound … and signals representing this” [Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford 2005, Vol. 1, p. 780].

Metadata is data about data of any sort in any media, describing an individual datum, content item, or a collection of data including multiple content items. In that way metadata facilitates the understanding, characterization, use and management of data.

Audio metadata is structured, encoded data that describes content and representation characteristics of audio entities to facilitate the automatic or semiautomatic identification, discovery, assessment, interpretation, and management of the described entities, as well as their generation, manipulation, and distribution.

Historical Background

Audio metadata predate audio data by centuries. Since antiquity artists and theoreticians alike were interested to classify the effects that could be produced by the combination of different...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Deutsch D, editor. The psychology of music. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic; 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dudley HW. The vocoder. Bell Labs Rec. 1939;17(2):122–6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Handel S. Listening. Cambridge, MA: MIT; 1989.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    IEEE P1599/D5.0. Draft recommended practice for definition of a commonly acceptable musical application using the XML Language. New York; 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ISO/IEC DIS 10743. Standard music description language (SMDL). 1995 July.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ISO/IEC 10744:1997. Information technology – Hypermedia/Time-based structuring language (HyTime). Geneva; 1997.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ISO/IEC 15938-4:2002. Information technology – Multimedia content description interface – Part 4: Audio. Geneva; 2002.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mazzola G. The topos of music. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2002.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moore B, editor. Hearing. San Diego: Academic; 1995.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mauser S, editor. Handbuch der musikalischen Gattungen. Laaber: Laaber Verlag; 1993.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rosen C. Sonata forms. 2nd ed. New York: Norton; 1980.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zaminer F. Geschichte der Musiktheorie. Darmstadt; 1984.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IBM Development LabBöblingenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vincent Oria
    • 1
  • Shin'ichi Satoh
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceNew Jersey Inst. of TechnologyNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Digital Content and Media Sciences ReseaMultimedia Information Research DivisionNational Institute of InformaticsTokyoJapan