Sodium Loading in Critical Care

Reference work entry


Critically ill patients are at risk of sodium retention. Current practices of patient management lead to high amount of sodium being administered often inadvertently and lead to high daily and cumulative sodium balance. Positive sodium balance may have adverse outcomes in addition to those observed with positive fluid balance as sodium being an extracellular ion leads to expansion of extracellular spaces with concomitant intracellular dehydration.


Serum Osmolarity Sodium Balance Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System Positive Fluid Balance Pulmonary Vascular Permeability 
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List of Abbreviations


Sodium concentration


Atrial natriuretic peptide


Blood pressure


Central venous pressure




Positive end-expiratory pressure




Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Intensive and Critical Care UnitFlinders Medical Centre and Flinders UniversityBedford ParkAustralia

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