Enteral Supplementation of Palm Vitamin E and Alpha-Tocopherol: Pre-clinical Aspects

  • Mohd Fahami Nur Azlina
  • Haji Mohd Saad Qodriyah
  • Yusof Kamisah
Reference work entry


The occurrence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding had been described in 6 % to 100 % in critically ill patients. The morbidity and mortality of patients with critical illnesses are positively correlated with the degree of oxidative stress. Therefore, the administration of antioxidants such as vitamin E seems to be a reasonable therapeutic approach. However, there is conflicting evidence about antioxidant supplementation. This chapter will reveal the scientific evidence of enteral supplementation of vitamin E in the forms of tocotrienol, tocotrienol-rich fraction, and α-tocopherol in animal models of stress. These models mimic the stress endured by critically ill patients in a clinical setting. The positive outcomes of enteral feeding with vitamin E in reducing the occurrence of stress-induced ulcers are discussed in this chapter. Evidences showing vitamin E’s effects are not just related to its ability to reduce gastric aggressive factors and to maintain gastric protective factors but also on its effects on stress hormones and catecholamines.


Gastric Mucosa Enteral Nutrition Gastric Lesion Gastric Motility Gastric Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations


Adrenocorticotropic hormone




Cyclooxygenase enzyme


Epidermal growth factor


Glutathione peroxidase


Reduced glutathione


Oxidized glutathione


Intensive care unit




Nonprotein sulfhydryl


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug


Prostaglandin E2


Reactive oxygen species


Superoxide dismutase




Tumor necrosis factor alpha




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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Fahami Nur Azlina
    • 1
  • Haji Mohd Saad Qodriyah
    • 1
  • Yusof Kamisah
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, PPUKMUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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