Encyclopedia of Law and Economics

2019 Edition
| Editors: Alain Marciano, Giovanni Battista Ramello

Cartels and Collusion

  • Bruce WardhaughEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7753-2_555


This entry provides an introductory account of cartels and collusion and the means used by European and American law to control such practices. The welfare-reducing and welfare-enhancing features of these cartel and other cartel-type arrangements are discussed to demonstrate the need for considered regulation. Both horizontal and vertical arrangements are analyzed, given their different uses and effects in the economy. However, as some forms of collusive activity are welfare enhancing, these are discussed in an effort to show why regulating such behavior must be done with care. Criminal, administrative, and private sanctions are compared as means of control of such agreements. Other topics briefly discussed the nature of (legally) permitted and prohibited collusive information exchange and noneconomic concerns which may justify collusive behavior.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of LawQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK