Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Living Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Gating Current

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_228-1

Definition

Gating current is the component of the neuronal transmembrane current due to the movement of charges attached to voltage-gated ion channels.

Detailed Description

Physical Basis

The proteins making up ion channels are arranged into subunits, which are further organized into segments. About a third of the amino acid residues in the S4 segments of voltage-gated ion channels are positively charged arginine and lysine. These gating charges are acted on by the electric field across the membrane, with the force changing the stability of ion channel conformations. The movement of the gating charges perpendicular to the membrane during conformation changes is the gating current. This is distinct from the ionic current, the current due to ions flowing through the channel pore.

The theory of ion channels opened and closed via gating charges was postulated by Hodgkin and Huxley (1952), although they used the term “gates” rather than “ion channels.” They predicted that gating current...

Keywords

Lysine Arginine 
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References

  1. Armstrong CM, Bezanilla F (1973) Currents related to movement of the gating particles of the sodium channels. Nature 242:459–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hille B (2001) Ion channels of excitable membranes, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  3. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (1952) A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J Physiol 117:500–544PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Patlak J (1991) Molecular kinetics of voltage-dependent Na+ channels. Physiol Rev 71:1047–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Informatics, University of EdinburghEdinburghUK