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Peripheral Nerves, Anatomy and Physiology of

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Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience


Peripheral nerves are formed by axonal extensions of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord (spinal nerves), brain stem (cranial nerves), or sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia (autonomic nerves) that connect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) with the rest of the body to maintain homeostasis, mediate sensation, movement, and coordination. The 43 pairs of sensory and motor nerves in the human body are composed of bundles of axons embedded in a collagenous matrix (endoneurium), ensheathed by connective tissue (perineurium), and wrapped by an external connective layer (epineurium). The cellular components of peripheral nerves include Schwann cells, fibroblasts, endothelial-like cells, and macrophages (Stewart, 2003).

Detailed Description

Types of Peripheral Nerves

Peripheral nerves are also classified in reference to the main function that they serve, as either motor sensory or autonomic nerves.

Motor Nerves

This nerves are composed by fibers...

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Correspondence to Mario Romero-Ortega phD .

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Romero-Ortega, M. (2014). Peripheral Nerves, Anatomy and Physiology of. In: Jaeger, D., Jung, R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience. Springer, New York, NY.

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