Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining

Living Edition
| Editors: Reda Alhajj, Jon Rokne

Collecting Qualitative Data to Enhance Social Network Analysis and Data Mining

  • Nancy L. Leech
  • Kathleen M. T. Collins
  • Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7163-9_395-1

Synonyms

Glossary

Data

Recorded observations

Qualitative data

Nonnumeric data in the form of words

Definition

Hollstein (2011) delineates six areas where qualitative research is helpful in social network research: (a) exploration of networks, (b) network practices, (c) network orientation and assessments, (d) how networks matter, (e) understanding network dynamics, and (f) validation of network data and field access. According to Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2008), there are four types of qualitative data – specifically, data generated from talk, observations, images (e.g., drawing, photograph, video), and documents. To collect these types of data, the researcher can implement the following strategies: interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material as cultural artifacts (Leech and Onwuegbuzie 2008). These qualitative data collection strategies when used individually or combined can increase the effectiveness of social network analysis research by...

Keywords

Social Network Focus Group Geographic Information System Social Network Analysis Boundary Specification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adler PA, Adler P (1987) Membership roles in field research. Sage, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angrosino MV (2005) Recontextualizing observation: ethnography, pedagogy, and the prospects for a progressive political agenda. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) The SAGE handbook of qualitative research, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 729–745Google Scholar
  3. Cardazone G, Sy AU, Chik I, Corlew LK (2014) Mapping one strong 'Ohana: using network analysis and GIS to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide coalition to prevent child abuse and neglect. Am J Community Psychol 53:346–356. doi: 10.1007/s10464-014-9641-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carolan BV (2013) Social network analysis and education: theory, methods and applications. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  5. Clandinin DJ (ed) (2006) Handbook of narrative inquiry: mapping a methodology. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  6. Collier J Jr, Collier M (1986) Visual anthropology: photography as a research method (Rev. ed). University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Creswell JW (2013) Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  8. Delay D, Hanish LD, Martin CL, Fabes RA (2016) Peer effects on head start children’s preschool competency. Dev Psychol 52(1):58–70. doi: 10.1037/dev0000066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eisenhart MA, Howe KR (1992) Validity in educational research. In: LeCompte MD, Millroy WL, Preissle J (eds) The handbook of qualitative research in education. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 643–680Google Scholar
  10. Fontana A (2002) Postmodern trends in interviewing. In: Gubrium J, Holstein J (eds) Handbook of qualitative research: context and method. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 161–175Google Scholar
  11. Fontana A, Frey JH (2000) The interview: from structured questions to negotiated text. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) The SAGE handbook of qualitative research, vol 2. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 645–672Google Scholar
  12. Fontana A, Frey JH (2005) The interview: from neutral stance to political involvement. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) The SAGE handbook of qualitative research, vol 3. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 695–727Google Scholar
  13. Gerber HR, Abrams SS, Curwood JS, Magnifico AM (2016) Conducting qualitative research or learning in online spaces. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  14. Guba EG, Lincoln YS (1989) Fourth generation evaluation. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  15. Haythornthwaite C (1996) Social network analysis: an approach and technique for the study of information exchange. Libr Inf Sci Res 18:323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hollstein B (2011) Qualitative approaches. In: Scott JP, Carrington PJ (eds) The Sage handbook of social network analysis. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 404–416Google Scholar
  17. Hytönen K, Palonen T, Lehtinen E, Hakkarainen K (2014) Does academic apprenticeship increase networking ties among participants? A case study of an energy efficiency training program. High Educ 68:959–976. doi: 10.1007/s10734-014-9754-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Institute ESR (n.d.) Environmental systems research institute. Retrieved on 13 Jul 2016 from http://www.esri.com/what-is-gis
  19. Johnson RB, Onwuegbuzie AJ, Turner LA (2007) Toward a definition of mixed methods research. J Mix Methods Res 1:112–133. doi: 10.1177/1558689806298224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kajornboon AB (2005) Using interviews as research instruments. Retrieved on 13 Jul 2016 from http://hsmi.psu.ac.th/upload/forum/Annabelinterviewguide.pdf
  21. Knoke D, Yang S (2008) Social network analysis, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krueger RA, Casey MA (2000) Focus groups: a practical guide for applied researchers, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  23. Laumann EO, Marsden PV, Prensky D (1989) The boundary specification problem in network analysis. In: Freeman LC, White DR, Romney AK (eds) Research methods in social network analysis. George Mason University Press, Fairfax, WA, pp 61–87Google Scholar
  24. Leech NL, Onwuegbuzie AJ (2008) Qualitative data analysis: a compendium of techniques for school psychology research and beyond. Sch Psychol Q 23:587–604. doi: 10.1037/1045-3830.23.4.587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levine JH (1999) We can count, but what do the numbers mean? In: Abu-Lughod J (ed) Sociology for the twenty-first century: continuities and cutting edges. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 83–93Google Scholar
  26. McFarland DA (2001) Student resistance: how the formal and informal organization of classrooms facilitate everyday forms of student defiance. Am J Sociol 107(3):612–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marsden PV (2005) Recent developments in network measurements. In: Carrington PJ, Scott J, Wasserman S (eds) Models and methods in social network analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Miles MB, Huberman AM, Saldaña J (2014) Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  29. Moreno JL (1953) Who shall survive? Beacon House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Onwuegbuzie AJ (2003) Effect sizes in qualitative research: a prolegomenon. Qual Quant 37:393–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Dickinson WB, Leech NL, Zoran AG (2009) Toward more rigor in focus group research: a new framework for collecting and analyzing focus group data. Int J Qual Met 8(3):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Dickinson WB, Leech NL, Zoran AG (2010a) Toward more rigor in focus group research in stress and coping and beyond: a new mixed research framework for collecting and analyzing focus group data. In: GS Gates, WH Gmelch, M Wolverton (series eds) and KMT Collins, AJ Onwuegbuzie, QG Jiao (vol eds) Toward a broader understanding of stress and coping: mixed methods approaches (pp. 243–285). The search on stress and coping in education series (vol 5). Charlotte: Information Age PublishingGoogle Scholar
  33. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Gerber HR, Abrams J (in press) Mixed methods. In: Matthes J (ed) International encyclopedia of communication research methods. Wiley-Blackwell and the International Communication Association, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Leech NL, Collins KMT (2008) Interviewing the interpretive researcher: a method for addressing the crises of representation, legitimation, and praxis. Int J Qual Met 7:1–17Google Scholar
  35. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Leech NL, Collins KMT (2010b) Innovative data collection strategies in qualitative research. Qual Rep 15:696–726Google Scholar
  36. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Leech NL, Collins KMT (2011) Innovative qualitative data collection techniques for conducting literature reviews/research syntheses. In: Williams M, Vogt WP (eds) The SAGE handbook of innovation in social research methods. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 182–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Patton MQ (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods, 2nd edn. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  38. Pink S (2014) Doing visual ethnography, 3rd edn. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Ripley RM, Snijders TAB, Boda Z, Vörö A, Preciado P (2016) Manual for Siena version 4.0. Oxford, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Robins G (2015) Doing social network research: network-based research design for social scientists. Sage, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  41. Rossman GB, Rallis SF (2012) Learning in the field: an introduction to qualitative research, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  42. Schneider SJ, Kerwin J, Frechtling J, Vivari BA (2002) Characteristics of the discussion in on-line and face-to-face focus groups. Soc Sci Comput Rev 20(1):31–42. doi: 10.1177/089443930202000104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schwandt TA (2007) The SAGE dictionary of qualitative inquiry, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Scott J (1988) Social network analysis. Sociology 22:109–127. doi: 10.1177/0038038588022001007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Serrat O (2009) Social network analysis. Asian Development Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  46. Stake RE (2010) Qualitative research: studying how things work. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  47. Suzuki LA, Ahluwalia MK, Arora AK, Mattis JS (2007) The pond you fish in determines the fish you catch: exploring strategies for qualitative data collection. Couns Psychol 35:295–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Werner O, Schoepfle GM (1987) Systematic fieldwork: ethnographic analysis and data management. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  49. Zaltman G (1996) Metaphorically speaking: new technique uses multidisciplinary ideas to improve qualitative research. Mark Res 8:13–20Google Scholar
  50. Ziller RC (1990) Photographing the self: methods for observing personal orientations. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar

Recommended Reading

  1. Borgatti SP, Everett MG, Freeman LC (2002) Ucinet for Windows: software for social network analysis. Analytic Technologies, HarvardGoogle Scholar
  2. Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) (2011) The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 4th edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  3. Onwuegbuzie AJ, Combs JP (2010) Emergent data analysis techniques in mixed methods research: a synthesis. In: Tashakkori A, Teddlie C (eds) SAGE handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 397–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Provalis Research (2011) QDA Miner 4.0: user’s guide. Author, MontrealGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy L. Leech
    • 1
  • Kathleen M. T. Collins
    • 2
  • Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Education and Human DevelopmentUniversity of Colorado DenverDenverUSA
  2. 2.Department of Curriculum & InstructionUniversity of Arkansas at FayettevilleFayettevilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Educational LeadershipSam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA
  4. 4.Faculty of EducationUniversity of JohannesburgAuckland ParkSouth Africa