Melanoma pp 743-771 | Cite as

Cutaneous Adverse Events of Systemic Melanoma Treatments

  • Christian Menzer
  • Steven T. Chen
  • Gregory S. Phillips
  • Mario E. LacoutureEmail author
Reference work entry


Cutaneous adverse events (AEs) are frequent with systemic melanoma treatments. As a result of a paradigmatic shift in melanoma management from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy to immunotherapies and targeted therapies as first-line treatment, the spectrum of skin AEs to these treatments has significantly broadened. Cutaneous toxicities from anticancer therapy manifest as doubly burdensome as visible stigmatization often carries profound psychosocial implications. Early detection and treatment help to minimize a reduction in patients’ quality of life and maximize anticancer treatment adherence and outcome. The knowledge of typical presentations associated with the specific drug regimen administered to the patient is essential for timely management of these conditions. A dermatological evaluation of the skin condition appears to be essential for an interdisciplinary approach as very often even dramatic skin presentations do not necessitate a cessation of the potentially lifesaving antineoplastic drug. Since the onset of AEs of some therapies can take up to several months or years and may also occur in cancer survivors long after completion of their therapy, thorough dermatological follow-up may be advised even after successful completion of antineoplastic treatments.


Cutaneous toxicities Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) MEK inhibitor (MEKi) Chemotherapy Adverse events (AEs) 



Atopic dermatitis


Activities of daily living


Adverse event




Actinic keratosis


Bullous pemphigoid


Bullous pemphigoid antigen


BRAF wild-type mutation


BRAF inhibitor


Body surface area


Chemotherapy-induced alopecia


Cyclosporin A


Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events


Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4


(Cutaneous) Squamous cell carcinoma


Dermo-epidermal junction


Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms


5-(3,3-Dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide


Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor


Food and Drug Administration


Hematoxylin and Eosin stain


Histone deacetylase


Hand-foot syndrome


Immune checkpoint inhibitor


Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase


Immune-related cutaneous adverse event


Immune-related adverse event




Lichen planus

MAPK pathway

Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway


MEK inhibitor


Mycophenolate mofetil






Non-small cell lung cancer


Overall survival




Programmed cell death protein-1


Programmed cell death ligand-1


Progression-free survival


Quality of life


Renal cell carcinoma


Response rate


Severe cutaneous adverse reaction


Stevens-Johnson syndrome


T-cell receptor


Toxic epidermolytic necrolysis


  1. Amitay-Laish I, Stemmer SM, Lacouture ME (2011) Adverse cutaneous reactions secondary to tyrosine kinase inhibitors including imatinib mesylate, nilotinib, and dasatinib. Dermatol Ther 24:386–395. Scholar
  2. Anforth R, Fernandez-Penas P, Long GV (2013) Cutaneous toxicities of RAF inhibitors. Lancet Oncol 14:e11–e18. Scholar
  3. Anforth R, Carlos G, Clements A, Kefford R, Fernandez-Penas P (2015) Cutaneous adverse events in patients treated with BRAF inhibitor-based therapies for metastatic melanoma for longer than 52 weeks. Br J Dermatol 172:239–243. Scholar
  4. Arbour KC et al (2018) Impact of baseline steroids on efficacy of programmed cell death-1 and programmed death-ligand 1 blockade in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 36:2872–2878. Scholar
  5. Ascierto PA et al (2016) Cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib in advanced BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma (coBRIM): updated efficacy results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 17:1248–1260. Scholar
  6. Balagula Y, Barth Huston K, Busam KJ, Lacouture ME, Chapman PB, Myskowski PL (2011) Dermatologic side effects associated with the MEK 1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886). Investig New Drugs 29:1114–1121. Scholar
  7. Barrios D, Ciccolini K, Phillips G, Skripnik Lucas A, Hsu M, Freites-Martinez A, Marchetti M, Deng L, Belum R, Lacouture ME (2017) Anti-cancer therapy interruption and diagnostic concordance between referring clinicians and dermatologists at Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer Center. Paper presented at the American Academy of Dermatology 75th annua meeting, Orlando, 3 Mar 2017Google Scholar
  8. Belum VR, Fontanilla Patel H, Lacouture ME, Rodeck U (2013) Skin toxicity of targeted cancer agents: mechanisms and intervention. Future Oncol 9:1161–1170. Scholar
  9. Berger TG, Steinhoff M (2011) Pruritus in elderly patients – eruptions of senescence. Semin Cutan Med Surg 30:113–117. Scholar
  10. Boussemart L et al (2013) Vemurafenib and radiosensitization. JAMA Dermatol 149:855–857. Scholar
  11. Camidge R, Price A (2001) Characterizing the phenomenon of radiation recall dermatitis. Radiol Oncol 59:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Capriotti K, Capriotti J, Pelletier J, Stewart K (2017) Chemotherapy-associated paronychia treated with 2% povidone-iodine: a series of cases. Cancer Manag Res 9:225–228. Scholar
  13. Chapman PB et al (2011) Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med 364:2507–2516. Scholar
  14. Chen S, Velez N, Saavedra A (2017) Adverse cutaneous drug reactions. In: McKean SRJ, Dressler D, Scheurer D (eds) Principles and practice of hospital medicine, vol 2. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1114–1124Google Scholar
  15. Chirasuthat P, Chayavichitsilp P (2018) Atezolizumab-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Case Rep Dermatol 10:198–202. Scholar
  16. Choi JN (2014) Dermatologic adverse events to chemotherapeutic agents, Part 2: BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, and ipilimumab. Semin Cutan Med Surg 33:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chou S, Zhao C, Hwang SJE, Fernandez-Penas P (2017) PD-1 inhibitor-associated lichenoid inflammation with incidental suprabasilar acantholysis or vesiculation-Report of 4 cases. J Cutan Pathol 44:851–856. Scholar
  18. Chu EY et al (2012) Diverse cutaneous side effects associated with BRAF inhibitor therapy: a clinicopathologic study. J Am Acad Dermatol 67:1265–1272. Scholar
  19. Coleman E, Panse G, Haldas J, Gettinger SN, Leventhal JS (2018) Pityriasis rubra pilaris-like erythroderma in the setting of pembrolizumab therapy responsive to acitretin. JAAD Case Rep 4:669–671. Scholar
  20. Collins LK, Chapman MS, Carter JB, Samie FH (2017) Cutaneous adverse effects of the immune checkpoint inhibitors. Curr Probl Cancer 41:125–128. Scholar
  21. Crosby T, Fish R, Coles B, Mason MD (2000) Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD001215.
  22. Curtin JA et al (2005) Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma. N Engl J Med 353:2135–2147. Scholar
  23. Dika E et al (2017) Cutaneous adverse effects during ipilimumab treatment for metastatic melanoma: a prospective study. Eur J Dermatol 27:266–270. Scholar
  24. Dummer R, Rinderknecht J, Goldinger SM (2012) Ultraviolet A and photosensitivity during vemurafenib therapy. N Engl J Med 366:480–481. Scholar
  25. Dummer R et al (2018a) Encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 19:603–615. Scholar
  26. Dummer R et al (2018b) Overall survival in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma receiving encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. Scholar
  27. Dummer R et al (2018c) Overall survival in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma receiving encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 19:1315–1327. Scholar
  28. Eggermont AMM et al (2018) Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma. N Engl J Med 378:1789–1801. Scholar
  29. Enomoto Y, Nakatani H, Kondo S, Kasai T, Tsuchiya Y (2018) Drug-induced oral lichenoid reaction during nivolumab therapy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. Scholar
  30. Ensslin CJ, Rosen AC, Wu S, Lacouture ME (2013) Pruritus in patients treated with targeted cancer therapies: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 69:708–720. Scholar
  31. Faje AT et al (2018) High-dose glucocorticoids for the treatment of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis is associated with reduced survival in patients with melanoma. Cancer 124:3706–3714. Scholar
  32. Flaherty KT et al (2012a) Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med 367:107–114. Scholar
  33. Flaherty KT et al (2012b) Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med 367:1694–1703. Scholar
  34. Fontecilla NM, Kittler NW, Lopez A, Yang C, Geskin L (2018) Programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitor-induced granuloma annulare and hypertrophic lichen planus masquerading as squamous cell carcinoma. JAAD Case Rep 4:636–639. Scholar
  35. Freeman-Keller M, Kim Y, Cronin H, Richards A, Gibney G, Weber JS (2016) Nivolumab in resected and unresectable metastatic melanoma: characteristics of immune-related adverse events and association with outcomes. Clin Cancer Res 22:886–894. Scholar
  36. Gelot P et al (2013) Vemurafenib: an unusual UVA-induced photosensitivity. Exp Dermatol 22:297–298. Scholar
  37. Goldinger SM, Stieger P, Meier B, Micaletto S, Contassot E, French LE, Dummer R (2016) Cytotoxic cutaneous adverse drug reactions during anti-PD-1 therapy. Clin Cancer Res 22:4023–4029. Scholar
  38. Guo J et al (2011) Phase II, open-label, single-arm trial of imatinib mesylate in patients with metastatic melanoma harboring c-Kit mutation or amplification. J Clin Oncol 29:2904–2909. Scholar
  39. Habre M, Habre SB, Kourie HR (2016) Dermatologic adverse events of checkpoint inhibitors: what an oncologist should know. Immunotherapy 8:1437–1446. Scholar
  40. Hanley T, Papa S, Saha M (2018) Bullous pemphigoid associated with ipilimumab therapy for advanced metastatic melanoma. JRSM Open 9. Scholar
  41. Hassel JC et al (2017) Combined immune checkpoint blockade (anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4): evaluation and management of adverse drug reactions. Cancer Treat Rev 57:36–49. Scholar
  42. Hauschild A et al (2012) Dabrafenib in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl 380:358–365. Scholar
  43. Horvat TZ et al (2015) Immune-related adverse events, need for systemic immunosuppression, and effects on survival and time to treatment failure in patients with melanoma treated with ipilimumab at memorial Sloan Kettering cancer center. J Clin Oncol 33:3193–3198. Scholar
  44. Hua C et al (2016) Association of vitiligo with tumor response in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with pembrolizumab. JAMA Dermatol 152:45–51. Scholar
  45. Hwang SJ et al (2016) Cutaneous adverse events (AEs) of anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma: a single-institution cohort. J Am Acad Dermatol 74:455–461 e451. Scholar
  46. Hwang A, Iskandar A, Dasanu CA (2018) Stevens-Johnson syndrome manifesting late in the course of pembrolizumab therapy. J Oncol Pharm Pract. Scholar
  47. Ito J, Fujimoto D, Nakamura A, Nagano T, Uehara K, Imai Y, Tomii K (2017) Aprepitant for refractory nivolumab-induced pruritus. Lung Cancer 109:58–61. Scholar
  48. Joly P et al (2002) A comparison of oral and topical corticosteroids in patients with bullous pemphigoid. N Engl J Med 346:321–327. Scholar
  49. Jour G et al (2016) Autoimmune dermatologic toxicities from immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 antibody therapy: a report on bullous skin eruptions. J Cutan Pathol 43:688–696. Scholar
  50. Keating GM (2016) Cobimetinib plus vemurafenib: a review in BRAF (V600) mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Drugs 76:605–615. Scholar
  51. Khoja L, Day D, Wei-Wu Chen T, Siu LL, Hansen AR (2017) Tumour- and class-specific patterns of immune-related adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review. Ann Oncol 28:2377–2385. Scholar
  52. Kim KB et al (2013) Phase II study of the MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor Trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma previously treated with or without a BRAF inhibitor. J Clin Oncol 31:482–489. Scholar
  53. Kunze J, Roeber H, Kollakowski M (1980) Phototoxic dermatitis caused by DTIC-treatment. Z Hautkr 55:100–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lacouture ME (2014) Dermatologic principles and practice in oncology: conditions of the skin, hair and nails in cancer patients, 1st edn. Wiley-Blackwell, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  55. Lacouture M, Sibaud V (2018) Toxic side effects of targeted therapies and immunotherapies affecting the skin, oral mucosa, hair, and nails. Am J Clin Dermatol. Scholar
  56. Lacouture ME et al (2010) Skin toxicity evaluation protocol with panitumumab (STEPP), a phase II, open-label, randomized trial evaluating the impact of a pre-Emptive Skin treatment regimen on skin toxicities and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 28:1351–1357. Scholar
  57. Lacouture ME et al (2013) Analysis of dermatologic events in vemurafenib-treated patients with melanoma. Oncologist 18:314–322. Scholar
  58. Lacouture ME, Wolchok JD, Yosipovitch G, Kahler KC, Busam KJ, Hauschild A (2014) Ipilimumab in patients with cancer and the management of dermatologic adverse events. J Am Acad Dermatol 71:161–169. Scholar
  59. Lacouture ME, Wu J, Markova A (2019) Dermatologic adverse events from cancer treatments. In: Shear N, Dodiuk-Gad R (eds) Advances in diagnosis and management of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Springer Nature Singapore, Singapore. Scholar
  60. Larkin J et al (2015) Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma. N Engl J Med 373:23–34. Scholar
  61. Levy A, Guitera P, Kerob D, Ollivaud L, Archimbaud A, Dubertret L, Basset-Seguin N (2006) Hypersensitivity to dacarbazine in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Ann Dermatol Venereol 133:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Long GV et al (2015) Dabrafenib and trametinib versus dabrafenib and placebo for Val600 BRAF-mutant melanoma: a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl 386:444–451. Scholar
  63. Long GV et al (2017a) Dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib monotherapy in patients with metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutant melanoma: long-term survival and safety analysis of a phase 3 study. Ann Oncol 28:1631–1639. Scholar
  64. Long GV et al (2017b) Adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in stage III BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med 377:1813–1823. Scholar
  65. Luke JJ, Schwartz GK (2013) Chemotherapy in the management of advanced cutaneous malignant melanoma. Clin Dermatol 31:290–297. Scholar
  66. Lynch TJ Jr, Kim ES, Eaby B, Garey J, West DP, Lacouture ME (2007) Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated cutaneous toxicities: an evolving paradigm in clinical management. Oncologist 12:610–621. Scholar
  67. Macdonald JB, Macdonald B, Golitz LE, LoRusso P, Sekulic A (2015) Cutaneous adverse effects of targeted therapies: Part II: inhibitors of intracellular molecular signaling pathways. J Am Acad Dermatol 72:221–236; quiz 237–228. Scholar
  68. Min Lee CK, Li S, Tran DC, Zhu GA, Kim J, Kwong BY, Chang ALS (2018) Characterization of dermatitis after PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy and association with multiple oncologic outcomes: a retrospective case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. Scholar
  69. Minor DR, Rodvien R, Kashani-Sabet M (2012) Successful desensitization in a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome due to vemurafenib. Melanoma Res 22:410–411. Scholar
  70. Mochel MC et al (2016) Cutaneous autoimmune effects in the setting of therapeutic immune checkpoint inhibition for metastatic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol 43:787–791. Scholar
  71. Naidoo J et al (2016) Autoimmune bullous skin disorders with immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1 and PD-L1. Cancer Immunol Res 4:383–389. Scholar
  72. Nayar N, Briscoe K, Fernandez Penas P (2016) Toxic epidermal necrolysis-like reaction with severe satellite cell necrosis associated with nivolumab in a patient with ipilimumab refractory metastatic melanoma. J Immunother 39:149–152. Scholar
  73. Palathinkal DM, Sharma TR, Koon HB, Bordeaux JS (2014) Current systemic therapies for melanoma. Dermatol Surg 40:948–963. Scholar
  74. Park JJ, Hawryluk EB, Tahan SR, Flaherty K, Kim CC (2014) Cutaneous granulomatous eruption and successful response to potent topical steroids in patients undergoing targeted BRAF inhibitor treatment for metastatic melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 150:307–311. Scholar
  75. Pasquali S, Hadjinicolaou AV, Chiarion Sileni V, Rossi CR, Mocellin S (2018) Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD011123. Scholar
  76. Pattanaprichakul P et al (2014) Sweet syndrome following vemurafenib therapy for recurrent cholangiocarcinoma. J Cutan Pathol 41:326–328. Scholar
  77. Phillips GS, Freites-Martinez A, Wu J, Chan D, Fabbrocini G, Hellmann MD, Lacouture ME (2018) Clinical characterization of immunotherapy-related pruritus among patients seen in 2 oncodermatology clinics. JAMA Dermatol. Scholar
  78. Robert C et al (2015a) Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med 372:2521–2532. Scholar
  79. Robert C et al (2015b) Improved overall survival in melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib. N Engl J Med 372:30–39. Scholar
  80. Robert C, Sibaud V, Mateus C, Verschoore M, Charles C, Lanoy E, Baran R (2015c) Nail toxicities induced by systemic anticancer treatments. Lancet Oncol 16:e181–e189. Scholar
  81. Rosen AC, Case EC, Dusza SW, Balagula Y, Gordon J, West DP, Lacouture ME (2013) Impact of dermatologic adverse events on quality of life in 283 cancer patients: a questionnaire study in a dermatology referral clinic. Am J Clin Dermatol 14:327–333. Scholar
  82. Sanlorenzo M et al (2015) Pembrolizumab cutaneous adverse events and their association with disease progression. JAMA Dermatol 151:1206–1212. Scholar
  83. Schad K, Baumann Conzett K, Zipser MC, Enderlin V, Kamarashev J, French LE, Dummer R (2010) Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibition results in biphasic alteration of epidermal homeostasis with keratinocytic apoptosis and pigmentation disorders. Clin Cancer Res 16:1058–1064. Scholar
  84. Sibaud V (2018) Dermatologic reactions to immune checkpoint inhibitors: skin toxicities and immunotherapy. Am J Clin Dermatol 19:345–361. Scholar
  85. Sibaud V et al (2016) Dermatological adverse events with taxane chemotherapy. Eur J Dermatol 26:427–443. Scholar
  86. Siegel J et al (2018) Bullous disorders associated with anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 therapy: a retrospective analysis evaluating the clinical and histopathologic features, frequency, and impact on cancer therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. Scholar
  87. Su F et al (2012) RAS mutations in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. N Engl J Med 366:207–215. Scholar
  88. Tetzlaff MT et al (2017) Lichenoid dermatologic toxicity from immune checkpoint blockade therapy: a detailed examination of the clinicopathologic features. Am J Dermatopathol 39:121–129. Scholar
  89. Teulings HE, Limpens J, Jansen SN, Zwinderman AH, Reitsma JB, Spuls PI, Luiten RM (2015) Vitiligo-like depigmentation in patients with stage III-IV melanoma receiving immunotherapy and its association with survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 33:773–781. Scholar
  90. Treudler R, Georgieva J, Geilen CC, Orfanos CE (2004) Dacarbazine but not temozolomide induces phototoxic dermatitis in patients with malignant melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 50:783–785. Scholar
  91. Uenami T et al (2017) Vitiligo in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma treated with nivolumab: a case report. Lung Cancer 109:42–44. Scholar
  92. Vazquez-Osorio I, Sanchez-Aguilar MD, Garcia-Rodino S, Suarez-Penaranda JM, Aliste C, Vazquez-Veiga H (2016) Vemurafenib-induced neutrophilic panniculitis: a new case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol 38:e93–e96. Scholar
  93. Wang LL et al (2018) Timing of onset of adverse cutaneous reactions associated with programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor therapy. JAMA Dermatol 154: 1057–1061. Scholar
  94. Weber JS, Kahler KC, Hauschild A (2012) Management of immune-related adverse events and kinetics of response with ipilimumab. J Clin Oncol 30: 2691–2697. Scholar
  95. Wenk KS, Pichard DC, Nasabzadeh T, Jang S, Venna SS (2013) Vemurafenib-induced DRESS. JAMA Dermatol 149:1242–1243. Scholar
  96. Wollina U (2001) Acute paronychia: comparative treatment with topical antibiotic alone or in combination with corticosteroid. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 15:82–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yin ES, Totonchy MB, Leventhal JS (2017) Nivolumab-associated vitiligo-like depigmentation in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia: a novel finding. JAAD Case Rep 3:90–92. Scholar
  98. Yorio JT et al (2014) Case of vemurafenib-induced Sweet’s syndrome. J Dermatol 41:817–820. Scholar
  99. Yung CW, Winston EM, Lorincz AL (1981) Dacarbazine-induced photosensitivity reaction. J Am Acad Dermatol 4:541–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zimmer L et al (2012a) Atypical melanocytic proliferations and new primary melanomas in patients with advanced melanoma undergoing selective BRAF inhibition. J Clin Oncol 30:2375–2383. Scholar
  101. Zimmer L, Livingstone E, Hillen U, Domkes S, Becker A, Schadendorf D (2012b) Panniculitis with arthralgia in patients with melanoma treated with selective BRAF inhibitors and its management. Arch Dermatol 148:357–361. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Menzer
    • 1
  • Steven T. Chen
    • 2
  • Gregory S. Phillips
    • 1
  • Mario E. Lacouture
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dermatology Service, Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Keith T. Flaherty
    • 1
  • Boris C. Bastian
    • 2
  • Hensin Tsao
    • 3
    • 4
  • F. Stephen Hodi
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Henri and Belinda Termeer Center for Targeted TherapiesMGH Cancer CenterCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.AuburndaleUSA
  4. 4.Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  5. 5.FraminghamUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's HospitalDana-Farber Cancer InstituteBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations