Spinal Interfaces: Overview
Spinal stimulation refers to the activation of the spinal cord tissue (white matter axonal tracts and/or gray matter neurons) or associated spinal roots (see “ General Overview of Spinal Anatomy and Physiology Organization” in this Encyclopedia) using various stimulation technologies to restore function lost to neurological impairment or study spinal circuitry organization.
Methodologies to activate spinal tissue can be divided on the basis of applications (bladder, movement restoration, pain reduction, etc.), stimulation or electrode technology employed (electrical, optical, etc.), electrode position (e.g., epidural, intradural, intraspinal, etc.), or a number of other characteristics. In this entry, spinal cord activation techniques are presented based on the degree of invasiveness, and the similar technological methods used to deliver stimulation to the neural tissue are highlighted. In increasing order of invasiveness, spinal cord stimulation techniques can be divided...
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