The cerebellum processes sensory and motor information. Structurally is divided in the cerebellar cortex network and the deep cerebellar nuclei. Inputs to the cerebellar cortex arrive via the mossy fibers from multiple sources; mossy fibers contact granule cells, Golgi cells and unipolar brush cells. The second input to the cerebellar cortex comes from the inferior olive in the form of climbing fibers that synapse Purkinje cells. The output of the cerebellar cortex is provided by Purkinje cells that integrate the synaptic activity of climbing fibers, granule cells, and inhibitory interneurons. Golgi cells provide an inhibitory feedback mechanism to the granule cell layer. The deep cerebellar nuclei are the final integrator of cerebellar information. Cells in the deep cerebellar nuclei receive input from Purkinje cells, mossy fibers and climbing fibers.
The widely studied cerebellar cortex is composed, mainly, of four types of neurons:...