Basal Ganglia: Overview
The basal ganglia are a collection of four subcortical nuclei: the striatum, substantia nigra, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus. They are components of several apparently segregated circuits that can be classified according to function as motor, oculomotor, associative, or limbic. Certain neurons in the basal ganglia are major sources of the neurotransmitter dopamine, associated with reward, while others receive dopaminergic inputs; thus, the basal ganglia have received considerable attention in the context of learning. Imbalances in activity across the basal ganglia nuclei within the motor circuit are associated with various motor disorders.
This section focuses on the motor aspects of the basal ganglia, which have been the subject of most computational studies. The articles can be classified as those concentrating on the activity within particular areas of the basal ganglia, those considering basal ganglia function, and those about the roles of...
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