Low Frequency Oscillations (Anesthesia and Sleep): Overview
The transition from waking to sleep or to anesthesia is characterized by an increase in the amplitude and a decrease in the frequency of the electrical activity recorded in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The spectral composition of the EEG changes from one dominated by low-amplitude fast frequencies in the beta gamma range to one dominated by the frequency ranges of slow (0.1–1 Hz), delta (1–4 Hz), and sigma (7–15 Hz, which corresponds with sleep spindles) oscillations (Silva and Schomer 2011). The dramatic changes in the EEG during the transition from waking to sleep correlate with the deafferentation of the forebrain from the external world and the suppression of consciousness. This section describes cellular mechanisms and computer models of these oscillatory processes and their functional consequences. In this overview entry,...
- Carracedo LM, Kjeldsen H, Cunnington L, Jenkins A, Schofield I, Cunningham MO, Davies CH, Traub RD, Whittington MA (2013) A neocortical delta rhythm facilitates reciprocal interlaminar interactions via nested theta rhythms. J Neurosci 33:10750–10761. PMCID: PMC3693056PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- da Silva FL, Schomer DL (eds) (2011) Niedermeyer’s Electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Jones EG (2007) The thalamus. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Ramon y Cajal S (1911) Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebres. Malione, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Steriade M (2003) Thalamus. WileyGoogle Scholar
- von Krosigk M, Bal T, McCormick DA (1993) Cellular mechanisms of a synchronized oscillation in the thalamus. Science 261:361–364Google Scholar