Intraspinal stimulation or microstimulation generally refers to electrical activation of the spinal cord through delivery of electrical current directly into the spinal tissue using microwire electrodes implanted into the white or grey matter of the cord. The term may also be applied for activation of the spinal tissue through iontophoresis (Saltiel et al. 1998) or optogenetics method (Alilain and Silver 2009). The range of applications includes lower and upper limb movements, bladder and bowel function, and respiration.
The Spinal Solution to Multi-joint Movement Control and Other Problems
As evidenced in other sections of this encyclopedia (“ Vertebrate Pattern Generation: Overview”), part of the substantial repertoire of movements observed in vertebrates is programmed at the level of the spinal cord and can function after injury to more rostral levels. Thus, “One...
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