Epidural stimulation is the mode of electrical activation of neuronal structures by electrodes implanted in the epidural space. Theoretically, epidural electrodes can be placed anywhere overlying the dural mater of the nervous system, but they typically have been placed over the spinal cord or overlying the cortical region of the brain. Clinical application of epidural stimulation is connected with pain control, treatment of spasticity, and regulation of motor functions after neurological disorders. Another newly developed application of epidural stimulation is to facilitate improved sensory-motor function after paralysis as a result of spinal cord injury. A third application of epidural stimulation that is emerging is its use as a chronically implanted device to be used for a neurophysiological assessment of functional connectivity along specific descending...
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