Deep Brain Stimulation (Models, Theory, Techniques): Overview
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established treatment for medically refractory patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) (Benabid et al. 1991; Blond et al. 1992; Benabid et al. 2002; Deuschl et al. 2006) as well as for patients with early motor complications (Deuschl et al. 2006; Schuepbach et al. 2013). Several neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) or essential tremor, are characterized by pathological synchronization (Nini et al. 1995; Brown et al. 2001). Parkinsonian resting tremor, for example, seems to origin from a pacemaker-like population of neurons of the basal ganglia firing in a synchronized and oscillatory manner (Hutchison et al. 1997; Hurtado et al. 1999; Magill et al 2001; Trottenberg et al. 2007). In contrast, under healthy conditions these neurons are active in an uncorrelated and desynchronized manner (Nini et al. 1995; Magill et al. 2001).
The standard DBS protocol employs permanent...
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