Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Living Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis (Editor-in-Chief)

Innovations in Presidential Elections: The United States, France, and Austria in Comparison

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6616-1_200083-1



The British public Brexit referendum, set for June 23, 2016, had caused major political irritations, when a majority of 51.89% had decided, with a narrow lead, that the United Kingdom (UK) should leave the European Union (EU). Opinion polls had predicted a tight result, but there were still prospects that the British electorate would prefer a remaining within the EU. However, the leave momentum prevailed finally. The United Kingdom had joined the EU in 1973; therefore this Brexit referendum, after 40 years of membership, created major attention (also international attention). When Brexit was possible, could then anything happen in politics (in established democracies)? Would Brexit redefine our standard political assumptions and redraw our expectations of what was or what is possible? These were questions also...
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (iff), Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education Research (WIHO)Alpen-Adria-University KlagenfurtViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Unit for Quality Enhancement (UQE)University of Applied Arts ViennaViennaAustria

Section editors and affiliations

  • David F. J. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty for Interdisciplinary StudiesAlpen-Adria-University KlagenfurtViennaAustria