Wound healing pertains to the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue.
Stages of Wound Healing
The inflammatory phase (hours to days) in which blood flow to the injured area is decreased, a blood clot forms, inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, monocytes) are recruited to the site of injury, and bacterial clearance occurs.
The proliferative phase (days to weeks) in which fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells are recruited and proliferate for the rebuilding process which involves wound contraction, reepithelialization, and angiogenesis (i.e., formation of new blood vessels).
The remodeling phase (weeks to months) in which the connective tissue matrix begun in the previous phase is fully formed and restructured (for review, see Engeland and Marucha 2009). Psychological stress can impair healing through its effects on each of these phases.
KeywordsObesity Depression Corticosteroid Cortisol Nicotine
References and Further Readings
- Bosch, J. A., Engeland, C. G., & Burns, V. E. (2011). Psychoneuroimmunology in vivo: Methods and principles. In J. Decety & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of social neuroscience (pp. 134–148). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Christian, L. M., Deichert, N. T., Gouin, J. P., Graham, J. E., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2009). Psychological influences on endocrine and immune function. In G. G. Berntson & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), Handbook of neuroscience for the behavioral sciences (pp. 1260–1279). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Engeland, C. G., & Graham, J. E. (2011). Psychoneuroimmunological aspects of wound healing and the role of pain. In D. Upton (Ed.), Psychological impact of pain in patients with wounds (pp. 87–114). London: Wounds UK Limited, A Schofield Healthcare Media Company.Google Scholar
- Hawkley, L. C., Bosch, J. A., Engeland, C. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Marucha, P. T. (2007). Loneliness, dysphoria, stress, and immunity: A role for cytokines. In N. P. Plotnikoff, R. E. Faith, & A. J. Murgo (Eds.), Cytokines: Stress and immunity. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar