Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Wound Healing

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_502-2



Wound healing pertains to the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue.

Stages of Wound Healing

Tissue repair involves three interdependent and overlapping phases:
  1. 1.

    The inflammatory phase (hours to days) in which blood flow to the injured area is decreased, a blood clot forms, inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, monocytes) are recruited to the site of injury, and bacterial clearance occurs.

  2. 2.

    The proliferative phase (days to weeks) in which fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells are recruited and proliferate for the rebuilding process which involves wound contraction, reepithelialization, and angiogenesis (i.e., formation of new blood vessels).

  3. 3.

    The remodeling phase (weeks to months) in which the connective tissue matrix begun in the previous phase is fully formed and restructured (for review, see Engeland and Marucha 2009). Psychological stress can impair healing through its effects on each of these phases.





Atopic Dermatitis Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Limit Blood Flow Trier Social Stress Test Expressive Writing 
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References and Further Readings

  1. Bosch, J. A., Engeland, C. G., & Burns, V. E. (2011). Psychoneuroimmunology in vivo: Methods and principles. In J. Decety & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of social neuroscience (pp. 134–148). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Christian, L. M., Deichert, N. T., Gouin, J. P., Graham, J. E., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2009). Psychological influences on endocrine and immune function. In G. G. Berntson & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), Handbook of neuroscience for the behavioral sciences (pp. 1260–1279). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Devries, A. C., Craft, T. K., Glasper, E. R., Neigh, G. N., & Alexander, J. K. (2007). 2006 Curt P. Richter award winner social influences on stress responses and health. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 587–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Engeland, C. G., & Gajendrareddy, P. K. (2011). Wound healing in the elderly. In M. Katlic (Ed.), Cardiothoracic surgery in the elderly: Evidence based practice (pp. 259–270). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Engeland, C. G., & Graham, J. E. (2011). Psychoneuroimmunological aspects of wound healing and the role of pain. In D. Upton (Ed.), Psychological impact of pain in patients with wounds (pp. 87–114). London: Wounds UK Limited, A Schofield Healthcare Media Company.Google Scholar
  6. Engeland, C. G., & Marucha, P. T. (2009). Wound healing and stress. In R. D. Granstein & T. A. Luger (Eds.), Neuroimmunology of the skin: Basic science to clinical relevance (pp. 233–247). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo, S., & DiPietro, L. A. (2010). Factors affecting wound healing. Journal of Dental Research, 89(3), 219–229.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Hawkley, L. C., Bosch, J. A., Engeland, C. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Marucha, P. T. (2007). Loneliness, dysphoria, stress, and immunity: A role for cytokines. In N. P. Plotnikoff, R. E. Faith, & A. J. Murgo (Eds.), Cytokines: Stress and immunity. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  9. Marucha, P. T., & Engeland, C. G. (2007). Stress, neuroendocrine hormones, and wound healing: Human models. In R. Ader, D. Felten, & N. Cohen (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology (pp. 825–835). San Diego: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biobehavioral HealthThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.College of NursingThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Center for Wound Repair and Tissue RegenerationUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA