Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Spirituality

  • Stephen Gallagher
  • Warren Tierney
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_495-2

Synonyms

Definition

Spirituality is a very unclear concept that has no concrete definition. By its very nature, the concept of spirituality is deeply rooted in religion, yet in contemporary spirituality, there is an incremental divide emerging between religion and spirituality. Therefore, in present-day society, the formation of a dichotomy with spirituality representing the personal, subjective, inner-directed, unsystematic, liberating expression and religion signifying a formal, authoritarian, institutionalized inhibiting expression is being witnessed. Spirituality has also been defined as a subjective and fluid approach to experiences which leads one to search for enlightenment, whereby behaviors are practiced in accordance with these sacred beliefs. Similarly, one can also consider spirituality to be something personal, which is defined by individuals themselves and is mostly likely devoid of the rules and regulations associated with religion.

Description...

Keywords

Spiritual Belief Daily Spiritual Experience Scale Spiritual Struggle Daily Spiritual Experience Spirituality Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References and Further Readings

  1. Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., Lee, H. A. N., & Carroll, D. (2015). The association between spirituality and depression in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities: Social support and/or last resort. Journal of Religion and Health, 54, 358–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Hill, P. C., & Pargament, K. I. (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research. American Psychologist, 58, 64–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hodge, D. R. (2003). The intrinsic spirituality scale. Journal of Social Service Research, 30(1), 41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. King, M., Jones, L., Barnes, K., Low, J., Walker, C., Wilkinson, S., et al. (2006). Measuring spiritual belief: Development and standardization of a beliefs and values scale. Psychological Medicine, 36(3), 417–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Koenig, H. G. (2009). Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 283–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Miller, W. R., & Thorensen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58, 24–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Paloutzian, R. E., & Ellison, C. W. (1991). Manual for the spiritual well-being scale. Nayack: Life Advance.Google Scholar
  9. Peterman, A. H., Fitchett, G., Brady, M. J., Hernandez, L., & Cella, D. (2002). Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: The functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spiritual well-being scale (FACIT-Sp). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 49–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 67, 985–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Richards, P. S., Smith, T., Schowalter, M., Richard, M., Berrett, M. E., & Hardman, R. K. (2005). Development and validation of the theistic spiritual outcome survey. Psychotherapy Research, 15, 457–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rosmarin, D. H., Pargament, K. I., & Flannelly, K. J. (2009). Do spiritual struggles predict poorer physical/mental health among Jews? The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 19, 244–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sawatzky, R., Ratner, P. A., & Chiu, L. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between spirituality and quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 72, 153–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Underwood, L. G., & Teresi, J. A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 22–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Wachholtz, M. A. B., & Pargament, K. I. (2009). Migraines and meditation: Does spirituality matter? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 3, 351–366.Google Scholar
  16. Wheeler, P., & Hyland, M. E. (2008). The development of a scale to measure the experience of spiritual connection and the correlation between this experience and values. Spirituality Health, 9, 193–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education & Health SciencesUniversity of LimerickCastletroy, LimerickIreland