Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Occupational Health

  • Johannes SiegristEmail author
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_40-3



“Occupational health” is defined as the field of research and intervention that deals with work- and employment-related influences on people’s health and health-related behaviors and their modification. The field of occupational health is broader than the academic discipline of occupational medicine as it includes organizational, psychosocial, and behavioral aspects in addition to the more traditional physical and chemical hazards, thus incorporating research and expertise from social and behavioral sciences.


Generally, behavioral medicine is interested in two approaches toward occupational health. The first approach considers the organizations, companies, and businesses where large population groups can be met recurrently and simultaneously as an ideal setting of implementing programs of behavioral modification. In these programs, health-adverse behaviors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, or lack of physical...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Black, C. (2008). Working for a healthier tomorrow. London: TSO.Google Scholar
  2. Eurofound. (2015). Convergence and divergence of job quality in Europe 1995–2010. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  3. Greenberg, J. (2010). Organizational injustice as an occupational health risk. The Academy of Management Annuals, 4, 205–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Karasek, R. A., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  5. Kivimäki, M., & Steptoe, A. (2018). Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews in Cardiology, 15(4), 215–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  7. Rugulies, R., Aust, B., & Madsen, I. E. (2017). Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of depressive disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 43(4), 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Schnall, P. L., Dobson, M., & Rosskam, E. (Eds.). (2009). Unhealthy work: Causes, consequences cures. Amityville: Baywood Press.Google Scholar
  9. Semmer, N. (2008). Stress management and well-being interventions in the workplace. In State of science review: SR-C6, report by the Foresight Project. London: Government Office for Science.Google Scholar
  10. Siegrist, J. (1996). Adverse health effects of high effort-low reward conditions at work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Siegrist, J., & Wahrendorf, M. (Eds.). (2016). Work stress and health in a globalized economy: The model of effort-reward imbalance. Cham: Springer International Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Theorell, T., Hammarström, A., Aronsson, G., Träskman Bendz, L., Grape, T., Hogstedt, C., Marteinsdottir, I., Skoog, I., & Hall, C. (2015). A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms. BMC Public Health, 15, 738.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Health and Society Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Düsseldorf, Life Science CenterDüsseldorfGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Urs M. Nater
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria