Hostility, Measurement of
Hostility is defined by a suspicious, mistrustful attitude and cynical disposition toward others. Considered an enduring personality characteristic, hostility is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and affective or emotional dimensions.
Measurement of hostility can be based on structured interviews, with interviewer ratings of behavioral dimensions and verbal expressions of hostility based on participants’ actions and responses within the interview setting. The classic example of this method of assessing hostility is the structured interview for Type A behavior, which was developed by Drs. Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, the two cardiologists who first coined the term “Type A” to describe what they perceived to be coronary-prone behavior (e.g., hostility, aggressiveness, time urgency, and a need to be hard-driving) among their heart patients (Friedman and Rosenman 1971). The Type A interview is...
References and Further Reading
- Everson, S. A., Kauhanen, J., Kaplan, G. A., Goldberg, D. E., Julkunen, J., Tuomilehto, J., & Salonen, J. T. (1997). Hostility and increased risk of mortality and acute myocardial infarction: The mediating role of behavioral risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146, 142–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar