Education, Lack of: As a Risk Factor
Lack of education as a risk factor of health conditions is part of the category of factors termed socioeconomic status (SES). The level of education can be measured in several manners including years of education (e.g., 5, 10, 18 years), stage of achieved education (e.g., primary school, secondary school, professional vocation, academic degree, graduate studies), as well as types of education (e.g., vocational, humanities, engineering, biomedical, social sciences). Low education has been shown to be a risk factor of multiple disease outcomes and can be construed as a source of health inequalities. For example, Clegg et al. (2009) found that the level of education below high school was a risk factor of cancer in men and women. In a Scottish study, lower education was associated with shorter height, high blood pressure, smoking, poorer lung functioning, and higher risk of death (Davey Smith et al. 1998). In the same study, occupational...
References and Further Readings
- Clegg, L. X., Reichman, M. E., Miller, B. A., Hankey, B. F., Singh, G. K., Lin, Y. D., Goodman, M. T., Lynch, C. F., Schwartz, S. M., Chen, V. W., Bernstein, L., Gomez, S. L., Graff, J. J., Lin, C. C., Johnson, N. J., & Edwards, B. K. (2009). Impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis: Selected findings from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Cancer Causes & Control, 20, 417–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Janicki-Deverts, D., Cohen, S., Matthews, K. A., Gross, M. D., & Jacobs, D. R., Jr. (2009). Socioeconomic status, antioxidant micronutrients, and correlates of oxidative damage: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 541–548.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar