Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Zung Depression Inventory

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_1300-2



The Zung Depression Inventory (SDS) is a 20-item self-rating scale which was constructed to simply measure affective, cognitive, behavioral, and somatic symptoms of patients whose primary diagnosis is a depressive disorder (Zung 1965). The SDS was the first self-rating scale which allows to assess depression specifically as a psychiatric disorder. The scale was developed on the basis of the most commonly found diagnostic criteria of depression and patient interviews.


Structure of the SDS

Half of the SDS items are worded positively, and half are phrased negatively. Subjects rate each item according to how they felt during the preceding week. The response categories range from (1) “none or a little of the time” to (4) “most or all of the time.” The scale takes on average 5 min to complete. An index for the SDS is...


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Burning Mouth Syndrome Functional Somatic Syndrome Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Hawley, C. J., Gale, T. M., Smith, P. S. J., Jain, S., Farag, A., Kondan, R., Avent, C., & Graham, J. (2013). Equations for converting scores between depression scales (MADRS, SRS, PHQ-9 and BDI-II): Good statistical, but weak idiographic, validity. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28, 544–551. doi:10.1002/hup.2341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hedlund, J. L., & Vieweg, B. W. (1979). The Zung self-rating depression scale: A comprehensive review. Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 10(1), 51–64.Google Scholar
  3. Shafer, A. B. (2006). Meta-analysis of the factor structures of four depression questionnaires: Beck, CES-D, Hamilton, and Zung. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 123–146. doi:10.1002/jclp.20213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Zung, W. W. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12(1), 63–70. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01720310065008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Zung, W. W. (1967). Factors influencing the self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 16(5), 543–547.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Zung, W. W. (1986). Zung self-rating depression scale and depression status inventory. In N. Sartorius & T. A. Ban (Eds.), Assessment of depression (pp. 221–231). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyPhilipps UniversityMarburgGermany