Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Congestive Heart Failure

  • William WhangEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_1255-2



Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot provide enough cardiac output for the metabolic demands of the body. The prevalence of heart failure has been estimated at 2% and is expected to grow due to improved survival of people with cardiac conditions (Mann 2008). The lifetime risk of developing heart failure has been estimated at 20%. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of heart failure (60–75%) (Lloyd-Jones et al. 2002). Etiologies for heart failure aside from coronary artery disease include viral inflammation of the heart, also known as myocarditis; alcohol toxicity; or genetic mutations.

One way to classify heart failure is according to left ventricular ejection fraction, a measure of contractile function. “Systolic heart failure” is defined by the presence of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, usually <40%. About half of patients with heart failure may still have preserved left ventricular ejection...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Larson, M. G., Leip, E. P., Beiser, A., D’Agostino, R. B., Kannel, W. B., et al. (2002). Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart failure: The Framingham heart study. Circulation, 106(24), 3068–3072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Maeder, M. T., & Kaye, D. M. (2009). Heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53(11), 905–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Mann, D. L. (2008). Chapter 227: Heart failure and cor pulmonale. In A. S. Fauci, E. Braunwald, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, J. L. Jameson, & J. Loscalzo (Eds.), Harrison’s principles of internal medicine (Vol. 17e). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  4. O’Connor, C. M., Whellan, D. J., Lee, K. L., Keteyian, S. J., Cooper, L. S., Ellis, S. J., et al. (2009). Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(14), 1439–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Rutledge, T., Reis, V. A., Linke, S. E., Greenberg, B. H., & Mills, P. J. (2006). Depression in heart failure a meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 48(8), 1527–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of CardiologyColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Linda C. Baumann
    • 1
  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA