Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot provide enough cardiac output for the metabolic demands of the body. The prevalence of heart failure has been estimated at 2% and is expected to grow due to improved survival of people with cardiac conditions (Mann 2008). The lifetime risk of developing heart failure has been estimated at 20%. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of heart failure (60–75%) (Lloyd-Jones et al. 2002). Etiologies for heart failure aside from coronary artery disease include viral inflammation of the heart, also known as myocarditis; alcohol toxicity; or genetic mutations.
One way to classify heart failure is according to left ventricular ejection fraction, a measure of contractile function. “Systolic heart failure” is defined by the presence of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, usually <40%. About half of patients with heart failure may still have preserved left ventricular ejection...
References and Further Reading
- Mann, D. L. (2008). Chapter 227: Heart failure and cor pulmonale. In A. S. Fauci, E. Braunwald, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, J. L. Jameson, & J. Loscalzo (Eds.), Harrison’s principles of internal medicine (Vol. 17e). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- O’Connor, C. M., Whellan, D. J., Lee, K. L., Keteyian, S. J., Cooper, L. S., Ellis, S. J., et al. (2009). Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(14), 1439–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar