Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

Living Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Erk3 and Erk4

  • Simon Mathien
  • Mathilde Soulez
  • Sonia Klinger
  • Sylvain MelocheEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6438-9_542-1


Historical Background

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) and ERK4 are atypical members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The ERK3 and ERK4 genes were originally identified in 1991 and 1992, by homology cloning with probes derived from the MAP kinase ERK1 (Gonzalez et al. 2002; Boulton et al. 1991). In human, ERK3 is encoded by the MAPK6 gene located on chromosome 15q21.2. The MAPK4 gene present on chromosome 18q21.1 encodes ERK4. The high sequence identity of ERK3 and ERK4 proteins and the similar organization of their genes indicate that the two proteins are true paralogs.

Structure of ERK3 and ERK4

ERK3 and ERK4 are related protein kinases of 100 and 70 kDa, respectively, that define a distinct subfamily of MAP kinases (Coulombe and Meloche 2007). They are characterized by the presence of a catalytic kinase...


Activation Loop C2C12 Myoblast Cell Cycle Exit ERK3 Expression Common Docking 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Mathien
    • 1
  • Mathilde Soulez
    • 1
  • Sonia Klinger
    • 2
  • Sylvain Meloche
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Program of Molecular BiologyInstitute of Research in Immunology and Cancer, Université de MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Novo NordiskCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Program of Molecular Biology Program of Molecular BiologyInstitute of Research in Immunology and Cancer, Université de MontréalMontrealCanada