Molecular Life Sciences

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert D. Wells, Judith S. Bond, Judith Klinman, Bettie Sue Siler Masters, Ellis Bell

Artificial Endonucleases for Genome Editing

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6436-5_98-1

Definition

Genome editing refers to methods for altering a specific gene in the chromosome of a living cell. The alteration might entail deletion or replacement with a different DNA molecule that is introduced to the cell, among other possibilities. Methods have been developed that enable researchers to alter a specific gene and test the effect of the alteration on the organism and, for gene therapy applications, to cure disease by correcting a defective gene.

Current genome editing methods involve generating a double-strand break at a specific site in the genome, followed by repair of the break by cellular DNA repair processes. Double-strand breaks can be introduced by an engineered zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) or a TAL effector endonuclease (TALEN). More recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used to generate RNA-directed DNA breaks.

Discussion

Genome editing depends on the ability to introduce a double-strand break at a specific location in a genome to either bring about deletion...

Keywords

Zinc Recombination Editing Archaea 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA