One of the fundamental questions in biology is: How is gene expression regulated in a context-dependent manner such that appropriate phenotypes (e.g., RNA, proteins) are produced given different environmental conditions? Indeed, appropriate genetic regulation is the hallmark of cellular viability. In multicellular organisms, cells that share identical genomes produce different phenotypes depending on specific spatial and temporal signals, bacterial cells produce different proteins when metabolic changes occur in the environment, and stem cells become heart or brain cells only when appropriate triggers are detected. This introductory entry will provide an overview of gene regulation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The subsequent chapters will deal more specifically with a suite of mechanisms used by cellular organisms to regulate expression and mechanisms employed to control the processing and production of gene products.
Development of the Field
It is widely recognized...
KeywordsGene Regulatory Network Transcriptional Control Control Gene Expression Chromatin Accessibility Eukaryotic System
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