Molecular Life Sciences

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert D. Wells, Judith S. Bond, Judith Klinman, Bettie Sue Siler Masters, Ellis Bell

Frequency of DNA Damage

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6436-5_319-1

Definition

The frequency of a particular type of damage is the number of molecules of the damage (adduct) occurring in a defined amount of DNA. This is a measure of the damage and is highly correlated with the resulting genotoxicity.

Discussion

As mentioned earlier, it is impossible to avoid all DNA damage. Even DNA samples from healthy individuals show significant levels of oxidized bases and other damage products. Many measurements have been done on levels of DNA damage under various settings with DNA from both humans and experimental animals. The question is often raised as to what level of DNA damage is a problem, particularly in regulatory settings. A precise answer cannot be given, in that the biological outcome is dependent not only on the frequency of DNA damage but also on (i) the chemical nature of the lesion, (ii) the site of the DNA base to which it is attached, (iii) the gene and position at which it is found, (iv) its rate of repair, and (v) phenomena such as the DNA...

Keywords

Adduct Bioactivation 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Billson HA, Harrison KL, Lees NP et al (2009) Dietary variables associated with DNA N7-methylguanine levels and O6-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase activity in human colorectal mucosa. Carcinogenesis 30:615–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chastain PD 2nd, Nakamura J, Rao S et al (2010) Abasic sites preferentially form at regions undergoing DNA replication. FASEB J 24:3674–3680PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kim D-H, Guengerich FP (1990) Formation of the DNA adduct S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione from ethylene dibromide: effects of modulation of glutathione and glutathione S-transferase levels and the lack of a role for sulfation. Carcinogenesis 11:419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Center in Molecular ToxicologyVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA