Functional Communication Training
Functional communication training (FCT) is a systematic approach to intervention in which a more socially appropriate behavior is taught to replace a challenging behavior (Durand 1990; Durand and Merges 2008, 2009; Prelock et al. 2011). It is presumed that the challenging behavior is an attempt to communicate; therefore, vocalizations, manual signs and gestures, or graphic symbols are used to replace the less desirable behaviors. Notably, FCT is used in combination with other interventions (Durand 1999; Olive et al. 2008).
Challenging behavior is a frequent occurrence for individuals with ASD, particularly when they do not possess the speech and language skills required to communicate their wants and needs. These behaviors may include self-injury, tantrums, aggression, etc. Research suggests that individuals with disabilities, and particularly those with ASD, are more likely to exhibit problem behaviors that are frequent, severe, and sustained over...
References and Readings
- Carr, E. G. (1988). Functional equivalence as a mechanism of response generalization. In R. H. Horner, G. Dunlap, & R. L. Koegel (Eds.), Generalization and maintenance: Lifestyle changes in applied settings (pp. 194–219). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Durand, V. M. (1990). Severe behavior problems: A functional communication training approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Durand, M. (2012). Functional communication training: Treating challenging behavior. In P. A. Prelock & R. J. McCauley (Eds.), Treatment of autism spectrum disorders: Evidence-based intervention strategies for communication and social interaction (pp. 107–138). Baltimore: Paul H Brookes.Google Scholar
- Durand, V. M., & Merges, E. (2008). Functional communication training to treat challenging behavior. In W. O’Donohue & J. E. Fisher (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy: Applying empirically supported techniques in your practice (2nd ed., pp. 222–229). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Durand, V. M., & Merges, E. (2009). Functional communication training to treat challenging behavior. In W. O’Donohue & J. E. Fisher (Eds.), General principles and empirically supported techniques of cognitive behavior therapy (pp. 320–327). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Durand, V. M., Mapstone, E., & Youngblade, L. (1999). The role of communicative partners. In J. Downing (Ed.), Teaching communication skills to students with severe disabilities within general education classrooms (pp. 139–155). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Mancil, G. R. (2006). Functional communication training: A review of the literature related to children with autism. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41(3), 213–224.Google Scholar
- National Autism Center (2009). National Standards Project, Phase 1: Addressing the need for evidence-based practice guidelines for ASD. (www.nationalautismcenter.org).
- Prelock, P. A., Paul, R., & Allen, E. (2011). Evidence-based treatments in communication for children with autism spectrum disorders. In B. Reichow, P. Doehring, D. V. Cicchetti, & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Evidence-base treatments for children with autism (pp. 93–169). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar