Short Description or Definition
A phonological disorder is an inability to articulate speech sounds accurately. The disorder may have a motoric (phonetic) component as well as a linguistic or cognitive (phonemic) basis. Therefore, phonological disorders may affect both the intelligibility of a child’s speech and his or her internalized knowledge of the language’s sound system. The errors committed are usually rule governed, i.e., they show a pattern across all words spoken.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association 2013), specifies four criteria that must be present in order for Speech Sound Disorder (which includes Phonological Disorder) to be diagnosed. First, an individual must exhibit persistent unintelligible speech consisting of phoneme addition, omission, distortion, or substitution, which interferes with verbal communication. Second, the deficits...
References and Reading
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (1993). Definitions of communication disorders and variations. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 35(Suppl. 10), 40–41.Google Scholar
- American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2006). Guidelines for speech-language pathologists in diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders across the life span (Guidelines). Retrieved April 26, 2011, from www.asha.org/policy
- Bauman-Waengler, J. (2012). Articulatory and phonological impairments: A clinical focus (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Fudala, J. B. (2000). Arizona articulation proficiency scale (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Gierut, J. (2008). Treatment efficacy summary: Phonological disorders in children. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://www.asha.org/public/EfficacySummaries.htm
- Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (2015). The Goldman-Fristoe test of articulation (3rd ed.). San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., & Paul, R. (1997). Language and communication in autism. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed., pp. 195–225). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.Google Scholar
- Secord, W., & Donohue, J. (2013). Clinical assessment of articulation and phonology, (2nd ed.). Greenville: Super Duper Publications.Google Scholar