Functional Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Peter A. Bandettini
Living reference work entry


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had a substantial clinical impact since the first commercial scanners were introduced in the early 1980s. The ability to image most human tissue and a wide range of pathologies at high-resolution and high anatomic contrast has led to the explosive propagation of MRI scanners worldwide. Anatomic MRI has enabled identification of tumors, lesions, and other pathologies throughout the body and has been particularly effective and suitable for brain imaging due to the predominance of its MR-differentiable soft tissue, lack of motion, and high levels of magnetic field homogeneity relative to the rest of the body.


Anatomic MRI Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD) Cerebral blood volume Chemical shift imaging Connectivity maps Decoding and multi-variate analysis Diffusion imaging Diffusion tensor imaging Dynamic connectivity Echo–planar imaging (EPI) Functional MRI Blood perfusion contrast Calibration Resting state Signal interpretation issues Susceptibility contrast Higher power gradient coils Independent component analysis (ICA) Magnetic susceptibility Multi-variate approach Naturalistic stimuli studies Neuromarkers Perfusion imaging Resting state fMRI Spin-echo imaging Susceptibility contrast Velocity nulling Voxel-wise subtraction of blood volume map 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section on Functional Imaging Method, Laboratory of Brain and CognitionNational Institute of Mental Health, NIHBethesdaUSA

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