Chemical Looping Combustion

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and looping cycles in general represent an important new class of technologies, which can be deployed for direct combustion as well as be used in gasification applications. In this type of system, a solid carrier is used to bring oxygen to the fuel gas, so that it can be subsequently released as a pure CO2 stream suitable for use or, more likely, for sequestration. The solid is then regenerated in a reactor using air, so that the technology effectively achieves oxygen separation from air without the use of a cryogenic process or membrane technology. In a sense, cycles using liquids, such as amine scrubbing, could also be regarded as a type of looping cycle, the key being that the carrier must be regenerated and reutilized for as long as possible. However, this chapter will restrict itself to considering the uses of solid carriers only and, more specifically, those in which oxygen is transported and not CO2 as is the case for calcium looping. Particular focuses of this chapter will be on the use of this technology for H2 production and gasification applications, as well as its use with solid fuels. Another issue that will be discussed is high-pressure cycles, which are ultimately necessary if such systems are to be integrated into high-efficiency electrical energy cycles.

Keywords

TiO2 Methane SiO2 Zirconia Hydrocarbon 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance and advice of Dr. David Granatstein (Granatstein Technical Services/CanmetENERGY) and Dr. Stuart Scott (Lecturer in Sustainable Energy, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge) for a number of valuable discussions during the preparation of this chapter as well as for suggesting various amendments and improvements.

References

  1. Abad A, Adánez J, García-Labiano F et al (2007a) Mapping of the range of operational conditions for Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-based oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion. Chem Eng Sci 62:533–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abad A, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A, Johansson M (2007b) The use of iron oxide as oxygen carrier in a chemical looping reactor. Fuel 86:1021–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abanades JC, Rubin ES, Anthony EJ (2007) Sorbent cost and performance in CO2 capture systems. Ind Eng Chem Res 43:3462–3466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adánez J, Gayán P, Celaya J et al (2006a) Chemical looping in a 10 kWth prototype using a CuO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier: effect of operating conditions on methane combustion. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:6075–6080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adánez J, Gayán P, Celaya J et al (2006) Behaviour of a CuO-Al2O3 oxygen carrier in a 10 kW chemical looping combustion plant. In: Nineteenth international conference on fluidized bed combustion, Vienna, 21–24 May 2006Google Scholar
  6. Adánez J, Dueso C, de Diego LF et al (2009a) Methane combustion in a 500 Wth chemical looping combustion system using an impregnated Ni-based oxygen carrier. Energy Fuels 23:130–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Adánez J, García-Labiano F, Gayán P et al (2009b) Effects of gas impurities on the behavior of Ni-based oxygen carriers on chemical-looping combustion. GHGT-9. Energy Procedia 1:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrus H (2007) Chemical looping combustion: R&D efforts of Alstom. In: Second workshop, oxy-combustion research network, Windsor, 25–27 Jan 2007Google Scholar
  9. Andrus HE, Thibeault PR, Chui JH, Lani BW (2010) Calcium oxide chemical looping with CO2 capture for the power industry. In: Ninth annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  10. Anthony EJ (1995) Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels: status, successes and problems of the technology. Prog Energy Combust Sci 21:239–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berguerand N, Lyngfelt A (2008a) The use of petroleum coke as fuel in a 10 kWth chemical-looping combustor. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 2:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berguerand N, Lyngfelt A (2008b) Design and operation of a 10 kWth chemical-looping combustor for solid fuels – testing with South African coal. Fuel 87:2713–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blamey J, Anthony EJ, Wang J, Fennell PS (2010) The calcium looping cycle for large-scale CO2 capture. Prog Energy Combust Sci 36:260–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohn CD, Muller CR, Cleeton JP et al (2008) Production of very pure hydrogen with simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide using the redox reactions of iron oxide in packed beds. Ind Eng Chem Res 47:7623–7630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown TA, Dennis JS, Scott SA et al (2010) Gasification and chemical-looping combustion of a lignite char in a fluidized bed of iron oxide. Energy Fuels 24:3034–3048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cao Y, Casenas B, Pan W-P (2006) Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. Redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels, and CuO as an oxygen carrier. Energy Fuels 20:1845–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chandel MK, Hoteit A, Delebarre A (2009) Experimental investigations of some metal oxides for chemical looping combustion in a fluidized bed reactor. Fuel 88:898–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiesa P, Lozza G, Malandrino A et al (2008) Three-reactors chemical looping process for hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33:2233–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chuang SY, Dennis JS, Hayhurst AN, Scott SA (2008) Development and performance of Cu-based oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion. Combust Flame 154:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cleeton JPE, Bohn CD, Dennis JS, Scott SA (2009) Clean hydrogen production and electricity from coal via chemical looping: identifying a suitable operating regime. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Consonni S, Lozza G, Pelliccia G et al (2006) Chemical looping combustion for combined cycles with CO2 capture. J Eng Gas Turbine Power 128:525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Corbella BM, Palacios JM (2007) Titania-supported iron oxide as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Fuel 86:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Corbella BM, de Diego F, García-Labiano F et al (2006) Performance in a fixed bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carrier for the chemical-looping combustion of methane in multicycle tests. Ind Eng Chem 45:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cuenca MA, Anthony EJ (eds) (1995) Pressurized fluidized beds. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Damen K, van Troost M, Faaij A, Turkenburg W (2006) A comparison of electricity and hydrogen systems with CO2 capture and storage: part A: review and selection of promising conversions and capture systems. Prog Energy Combust Sci 32:215–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Diego LF, García-Labiano F, Adánez J et al (2004) Development of Cu-based oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion. Fuel 83:1749–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Diego LF, Gayán P, García-Labiano F et al (2005) Impregnated CuO/Al2O3 oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion: avoiding fluidized bed agglomeration. Energy Fuels 19:1850–1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Diego LF, García-Labiano F, Gayán P et al (2007) Operation of a 10 kWth chemical-looping combustor during 200 h with a CuO-Al2O3 oxygen carrier. Fuel 86:1036–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. De Diego LF, Ortiz M, García-Labiano F et al (2009) Synthesis gas generation by chemical-looping reforming using a Ni-based oxygen carrier. GHGT-9. Energy Procedia 1:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dennis JS, Scott SA (2010) In situ gasification of a lignite coal and CO2 separation using chemical looping with a Cu-based oxygen carrier. Fuel 89:1623–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dennis JS, Scott SA, Hayhurst AN (2006) In situ gasification of coal using steam with chemical looping: a technique for isolating CO2 from burning a solid fuel. J Energy Inst 79:187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dueso C, García-Labiano F, Adánez J et al (2009) Syngas combustion in a chemical-looping combustion system using impregnated Ni-based oxygen carrier. Fuel 88:2357–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fan L, Li F, Ramkumar S (2008) Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes. Particuology 6:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foero CR, Gayán P, García-Labiano F et al (2010) Effect of gas composition in chemical-looping combustion with copper based oxygen carriers: fate of sulphur. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 4(5):762–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gao Z, Shen L, Xian J et al (2008) Use of coal as fuel for chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carrier. Ind Eng Chem Res 47:9279–9287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garcia-Labiano F, Adánez J, de Diego LF et al (2006) Effect of pressure on the behavior of copper-, iron-, and nickel-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion. Energy Fuels 20:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gayán P, Dueso C, Abad A et al (2009) NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion prepared by impregnation and deposition-precipitation methods. Fuel 88:1016–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Go KS, Son SR, Kim SD et al (2009) Hydrogen production from two-step steam methane reforming in a fluidized bed reactor. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:1301–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harrison DP (2009) Private communication. University of Louisiana, LafayetteGoogle Scholar
  40. Harvey SP, Richter HJ (1994) A high-efficiency gas turbine power generation cycle with solid oxide fuel cell technology and chemical looping fuel combustion. ASME Thermodyn Des Anal Improv Energy Syst Symp AES 33:66–71Google Scholar
  41. Hatanak T, Matsuda S, Hatano H (1997) A new concept gas-solid combustion system “Merit”, for high combustion efficiency, and low emissions. In: Proceedings of the 23rd energy conversion engineering conference, vol 2, Denver, pp 994–948Google Scholar
  42. He F, Wei Y, Li H, Wang H (2009) Synthesis gas generation by chemical-looping reforming using Ce-based oxygen carriers modified with Fe, Cu and Mn oxides. Energy Fuels 23:2095–2102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Higman C, van der Burgt M (2008) Gasification, 2nd edn. Gulf Professional Publishing, Elsevier/OxfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Hossain MM, de Lasa HI (2008) Chemical looping combustion (CLC) for inherent CO2 separations – a review. Chem Eng Sci 63:4433–4451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hossain M, Lopez D, Herrera J, de Lasa HI (2009) Nickel on lanthanum-modified γ-Al2O3 oxygen carrier for CLC: reactivity and stability. Catal Today 43:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ishida M, Jin H (1994a) A novel combustor based on chemical looping reactions and its reaction kinetics. J Chem Eng Jpn 27:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ishida M, Jin H (1994b) A new advanced power-generation system using chemical-looping combustion. Energy 19:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ishida M, Yamamoto M, Ohba T (2002) Experimental results of chemical looping combustion with NiO/NiAl2O4 particle circulation at 1200 °C. Energy Convers Manage 43:1469–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ishida M, Takeshita K, Suzuki K, Ohba T (2005) Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite particles as solid looping materials of the chemical-loop combustor. Energy Fuels 19:2514–2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jerndal E, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A (2006) Thermal analysis of chemical looping combustion. Chem Eng Res Des 84:795–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jerndal E, Mattisson T, Thijs I et al (2010) Investigation of NiO/NiAl2O4 oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion produced by spray-drying. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 4:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jin H, Ishida M (2001) Reactivity study on a novel hydrogen fueled chemical-looping combustion. Int J Hydrogen Energy 26:889–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jin H, Ishida M (2004) A new type of coal gas fueled chemical looping combustion. Fuel 83:2411–2417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jin H, Okamato T, Ishida M (1999) Development of a novel chemical-looping combustion: synthesis of a solid looping material of NiO/NiAl2O4. Ind Eng Chem Res 38:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Johansson M (2007) Screening of oxygen carrier particles based on iron, manganese, copper and nickel oxides for use in chemical looping technologies. PhD thesis, Chalmers University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  56. Johansson M, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A (2006a) Investigation of Mn3O4 with stabilized ZrO2 for chemical looping combustion. Chem Eng Res Des 84:807–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Johansson M, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A (2006b) Creating a synergy effect by using mixed oxides of iron and nickel in the combustion of methane in a chemical-looping combustor reactor. Energy Fuels 20:2399–2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johansson M, Mattisson T, Rydén M, Lyngfelt A (2006) Carbon capture via chemical looping combustion and reforming. In: International seminar on carbon sequestration and climate change, Rio de Janeiro, 24–26 Oct 2006Google Scholar
  59. Kale GR, Kulkarni BD, Joshi AR (2010) Thermodynamic study of combining chemical looping combustion and combined reforming of propane. Fuel 89:3141–3146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kimball E, Geerdink P, Huisinga A et al (2010) Fixed bed chemical looping combustion experiment based design. In: Proceedings of the 35th international technical conference on clean coal and fuel systems, Clearwater, 6–10 June 2010Google Scholar
  61. Ksepko E, Siriwardane RV, Tian H et al (2010) Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carrier. Energy Fuels 24(8):4206–4214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kuusik R, Trikkel A, Lyngfelt A, Mattisson T (2009) High temperature behavior of NiO-based oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion. Energy Procedia 1:3885–3892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kvamsdal HM, Jordal K, Bolland O (2007) A quantitative comparison of gas turbine cycles with CO2 capture. Energy 32:10–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Larsen R, Wang M, Santini D et al (2004) Might Canadian oil sands promote hydrogen production technology for transportation. Argonne National Laboratory Presentation, Chicago, IL, 20(Apr 2004)Google Scholar
  65. Leion H, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A (2007) The use of petroleum coke as fuel in chemical-looping combustion. Fuel 86:1947–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leion H, Lyngfelt A, Johansson M et al (2008a) The use of ilmenite as an oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion. Chem Eng Res Dev 86:1017–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leion H, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A (2008b) Solid fuels in chemical-looping combustion. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 2:180–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewis WK, Gilliland ER (1954) Production of pure carbon dioxide. US patent no 2,665,972Google Scholar
  69. Lewis WK, Gilliland ER, Reed WA (1949) Reaction of methane with copper oxide in a fluidized bed. Ind Eng Res 41:1227–1237Google Scholar
  70. Li K, Wang H, Wei Y et al (2010) Syngas production from methane and air via a redox process using Ce-Fe mixed oxides as oxygen carriers. Appl Catal B 97:361–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Linderholm C, Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A (2009) Long-term integrity testing of spray-dried particles in a 10-kW chemical-looping combustor using natural gas as fuel. Fuel 88:2083–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lyngfelt A, Leckner B, Mattisson T (2001) A fluidized-bed combustion process with inherent CO2 separation: application of chemical looping combustion. Chem Eng Sci 56:3101–3113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lyngfelt A, Kronberger B, Adanez J et al (2004) The Grace Project development of oxygen carrier particles for chemical looping combustion, design and operation of a 10 kW chemical looping combustor. http://uregina.ca/ghgt7/PDF/papers/peer/132.pdf
  74. Lyon RK, Cole JA (2000) Unmixed combustion: an alternative to fire. Combust Flame 121:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Markström P, Berguerand N, Lyngfelt A (2010) The application of a multistage-bed model for residence-time analysis in chemical-looping combustion of solid fuel. Chem Eng Sci 65(18):5055–5066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mattisson T, Lyngfelt A, Cho P (2001) The use of iron oxide as an oxygen carrier, in chemical-looping of methane with inherent separation of CO2. Fuel 80:1953–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mattisson T, Johansson M, Jerndal E, Lyngfelt A (2008) The reaction of Ni/NiAl2O4 particles with alternating methane and oxygen. Can J Chem Eng 86:756–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mattisson T, Leion H, Lyngfelt A (2009) Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling using CuO/ZrO2 with petroleum coke. Fuel 88:683–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McGlashan NR (2010) The thermodynamics of chemical looping combustion applied to the hydrogen economy. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:6465–6474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mayer K, Prőll T, Hofbauer H (2010) Performance of mixtures of natural minerals and a nickel based material as oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion in a 120 kW pilot plant. In: 1st international conference on chemical looping, Lyon, 17–19 Mar 2010Google Scholar
  81. Naqvi R, Wolf J, Bolland O (2007) Part-load analysis of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle with CO2 capture. Energy 32:360–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Partington JR (1939) A text book of inorganic chemistry, 5th edn. MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. Prőll T, Mayer K, Bolhàr-Nordenkampf J et al (2009) Natural minerals as oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion in a dual circulating fluidized bed system. Energy Procedia 1:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pröll T, Bolhàr-Nordenkampf J, Kolbitsch P, Hofbauer H (2010) Syngas and a separate nitrogen/argon stream via chemical looping reforming – a 140 kW pilot plant study. Fuel 89:1249–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rao AB, Rubin ES (2006) Identifying cost-effective CO2 control levels for amine-based CO2 capture. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:2421–2429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Redman JE, Olafsen A, Smith JB, Blom R (2006) Chemical looping combustion using NiO/NiAl2O4: mechanisms and kinetics of reduction-oxidation (Red-Ox) reactions from in situ powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric experiments. Energy Fuels 20:1382–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Richter HJ, Knoche K (1983) Reversibility of combustion processes. ACS Symp Ser 235:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rubel A, Liu K, Neathery J, Taulbee D (2009) Oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels. Fuel 88:876–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rydén M, Lyngfelt A, Schulman A et al (2008a) Developing chemical-looping steam reforming and chemical-looping autothermal reforming. In: Thomas DC, Bensen SM (eds) Carbon dioxide capture for storage in deep geological formations, vol 3. CPL Press, BerksGoogle Scholar
  90. Rydén M, Lyngfelt A, Mattisson T et al (2008b) Novel oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion and chemical-looping reforming La x Sr1 − x Fe y Co1 − y, O3-δ perovskites and mixed-metal oxides of NiO, Fe2O3, and Mn3O4. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 2:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rydén M, Lyngfelt A, Mattisson T (2008c) Chemical-looping combustion and chemical-looping reforming in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor using Ni-based oxygen carriers. Energy Fuels 22:2285–2297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rydén M, Johansson M, Cleverstam E et al (2010) Ilmenite with addition of NiO as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion. Fuel 89(11):3523–3533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Scott SA, Dennis JS, Hayhurst AN, Brown T (2006) In-situ gasification of a solid fuel and CO2 separation using chemical looping. AIChE J 52:3325–3328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shen L, Zheng M, Xiao J, Xiao R (2008) A mechanistic investigation of a calcium based oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion. Combust Flame 154:489–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shen L, Wu J, Xiao J (2009) Experiments on chemical looping combustion of coal with a NiO based oxygen carrier. Combust Flame 156:721–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shen L, Gao Z, Wu J, Xiao J (2010) Sulfur behavior in chemical looping combustion with NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier. Combust Flame 157:853–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shimuzu T (2010) Open communication at 60th IEA FBC meeting. Gothenburg, Sweden(May 2010)Google Scholar
  98. Siriwardane R, Poston J, Chaudhari K et al (2007) Chemical looping combustion of simulated synthesis gas using nickel oxide oxygen carrier supported on bentonite. Energy Fuels 21:1582–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Siriwardane R, Tian H, Miller D et al (2010) Evaluation of reaction mechanism of coal-metal oxide interaction in chemical looping combustion. Combust Flame 157:2198–2208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Son SR, Kim SD (2006) Chemical looping combustion with NiO and Fe2O3 in a thermobalance and circulating fluidized bed reactor with double loops. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:2689–2696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Song Q, Xiao R, Deng Z et al (2008a) Chemical looping combustion of methane with CaSO4 oxygen carrier in a fixed bed reactor. Energy Convers Manage 40:3178–3187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Song Q, Xiao R, Deng Z et al (2008b) Multicycle study on chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas with a CaSO4 oxygen carrier in a fluidized bed reactor. Energy Fuels 22:3661–3672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Song Q, Ziao R, Deng Z et al (2008c) Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO4 oxygen carrier in a chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor. Ind Eng Chem 47:8148–8149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Srinivasan NS, Lahiri AK (1975) On the mechanism of iron oxide reduction by carbon. Metall Trans B 6(2):269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tan R, Santos S, Spliethoff H (2006) Chemical looping combustion for fossil fuel utilization with carbon sequestration. International flame foundation study report document no G 23/y/sGoogle Scholar
  106. Tian H, Guo Q (2009) Investigation into the behavior of reductive decomposition of calcium sulfate by carbon monoxide in chemical looping combustion. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:5624–5632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tian H, Chaudhari K, Simonyi T et al (2008) Chemical looping combustion of coal derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers. Energy Fuels 22:3744–3755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wang J, Anthony EJ (2008) A process for clean combustion of solid fuels. Appl Energy 85:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wolf J, Anheden M, Yan J (2005) Comparison of nickel- and iron-based oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion for CO2 capture in power generation. Fuel 84:993–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Xiang W, Wang S, Di T (2006) Investigation of gasification chemical looping combustion combined cycle performance. Energy Fuels 22:961–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Xiang W, Chen S, Xue Z, Sun X (2010) Investigation of coal gasification hydrogen and electricity co-production with three-reactors chemical looping process. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35(16):8580–8591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Xiao R, Song Q, Song M et al (2010a) Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier. Combust Flame 157:1140–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Xiao R, Song S, Zhang S et al (2010b) Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of Chinese bituminous coal: cyclic performance and characterization of iron-ore based oxygen carrier. Energy Fuels 24:1449–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yang J, Cai N-S, Li Z-S (2008) Hydrogen production from the steam-iron process with direct reduction of iron oxide by chemical looping combustion of coal char. Energy Fuels 22:2570–2579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zafar Q, Mattisson T, Gevert B (2005) Integrated hydrogen and power production with CO2 capture using chemical-looping reforming-redox reactivity of particles of CuO, NiO and Fe2O3 using SiO2 as a support. Ind Eng Chem Res 44:3485–3496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zeeman F, Castaldi M (2008) An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping. Environ Sci Technol 42:2723–2727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhang X, Han W, Hong H, Jin H (2008) A chemical intercooling turbine cycle with chemical looping combustion. Energy 34:2131–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhao H, Liu L, Wang B et al (2008) Sol-gel derived NiO/NiAl2O4 oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion by coal char. Energy Fuels 22:898–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zheng M, Shen L, Xiao J (2010) Reduction of CaSO4 oxygen carrier with coal in chemical-looping combustion: effects of temperature and gasification intermediate. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 4(5):716–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources CanadaOttawaUSA

Personalised recommendations